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Thursday 22 March 2018
♂ Mars Sol Date 51268.4097

Here’s today’s date in 515 languages and dialects. I’m favoring those that are at least a bit off the beaten track, offer Gregorian calendar terms that depart substantially from your run-of-the-mill neo-Latin, or both. (Spanish? No. Asturian? Yes.)

Blue terms in parentheses ( ) are alternate names for a language, while those in brackets [ ] specify a particular subdivision or dialect shown. Click the blue language name for its ISO code and background info.

<span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>j. JENUIER / LOUWMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ij. FREUIER / SPROKKELMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iij. MARCH / LENTEMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iiij. AURIL / GRASMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>v. MAY / BLOEIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vj. JUING / ZOMERMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vij. JUILLET / HOOIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>viij. AUOUST / OOGSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ix. SEPTĒBRE / HERFSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>x. OCTĒBRE / WIJNMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xj. NOUĒBRE / SLACHTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xij. DECĒBRE / WINTERMAAND</aside></i></span>

One of the surprises here is how many non-European languages have Gregorian date terminology like this to dust off, at least for the record, even as their underlying cultures stand foursquare behind Islamic (Hijri), Hindu, Buddhist, or other calendar systems.

For those that expired before the advent of modern place-value numerals I’m using Roman. For Etruscan I’m using Etruscan numerals while pretending those serene, elbow-lounging folks used the Gregorian calendar and reckoned dates sequentially as we do. Traditional Chuvash numerals follow a similar scheme, but with the smaller units to the left of the larger ones, a slash for 5, and a star for 1000. Moksha resembled Chuvash but used a lambda for 10 and a kind of reflected sawhorse for 1000.

The only non-Gregorian date I’m showing is an estimate for the Gaulish, whose calendar was offset by about half a month from that used by their Roman contemporaries and whose months alternated between 29 and 30 days as opposed to 30 and 31.


Abaza: Abaza ✧ ABQ ✧ Northwest Caucasian, endangered, 48,000 speakers in Russia and in Turkish diaspora communities. Has 63 consonants but only 2 vowels.
22 гӀапынхъамыз (ʿapynqamyz) 2018
Abenaki [Western]: Abenaki [Western] ✧ ABE ✧ Algonquian family. Spoken by fewer than 20 in Odanak, Quebec.
22 Mozokas 2018
Abkhaz: Abkhaz ✧ ABK ✧ Northwest Caucasian. Has eight different kinds of K sounds + Q.
22 хәажәкыр (hãažãkyr) 2018
Afar: Afar ✧ AAR ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia.
22 Ciggilta Kudo 2018
Aghem (Wum): Aghem (Wum) ✧ AGQ ✧ Niger-Congo family, Cameroon. Aghem speakers traditionally used leopard-skin carpets.
22 ndzɔ̱ŋɔ̱tƗ̀dʉ̀ghà 2018
Agul: Agul ✧ AGX ✧ Northeast Caucasian, 17,000 speakers mostly in southern Dagestan
22 суьл варз (sul varz) 2018
Ahom: Ahom ✧ AHO ✧ Tai-Kadai family, Brahmaputra river valley, extinct by 1800. Unique script.
22 mar (din sam) 2018
Ahtna: Ahtna ✧ AHT ✧ Athabaskan, only 80 speakers, Alaska’s Copper River
22 konts’aghi na’aaye’ 2018
Ainu: Ainu ✧ AIN ✧ Aboriginal language of Japanese archipelago, ancestry unknown, nearly extinct natively
22 ミキワタチュプ (mikiwtachup) 2018
Akan: Akan ✧ AKA ✧ Niger-Congo Language brought to South America by slaves
22 Ebɔw-Ɔbenem 2018
Alabama: Alabama ✧ AKZ ✧ Muskogean language, distantly related to Choctaw (q.v.), spoken in Texas
22 hasiholtina istatótchìina 2018
Albanian [Gheg]: Albanian [Gheg] ✧ SQI ✧ Indo-European language with its very own branch
22 mars 2018
Albanian [Tosk]: Albanian [Tosk] ✧ ALS ✧ Dialect (also called Arberesh) spoken in Italy, semi-intelligible with Gheg Albanian (q.v.)
22 mars 2018
Algonquin: Algonquin ✧ ALQ ✧ Algonquian family, closely related to (but divergent from) Ojibwe (q.v.). 1800 speakers in Quebec and Ontario.
22 nekì gizis 2018
Alsatian: Alsatian ✧ GSW ✧ High German dialect. 100,000 speakers, all bilingual with French.
22 d’r März 2018
Altai: Altai ✧ ATV ✧ Turkic language spoken by 20,000 natively in Siberia’s Altai Mountains
22 kandıq 2018
Alutiiq: Alutiiq ✧ EMS ✧ An Eskimo-Aleut language, indigenous to the Alaska and Kenai Peninsulas and Kodiak Island, with around 200 native speakers. There are two chief dialects, Kodiak and Chugach.
22 Kaignasqaq Iraluq 2018
Amharic: Amharic ✧ AMH ✧ Afro-Asiatic. Ethiopia, yes, but the Rastafari also dig it.
22 mäggabit 2018
Apatani (Tanii): Apatani (Tanii) ✧ APT ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, eastern Himalayas. Most nouns have 2 syllables.
22 myoko piilo 2018
Arabic [Levantine]: Arabic [Levantine] ✧ APC ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Semitic. Descended from Ancient North Arabian.
٢٢ آذار (āðar) ٢٠١٨
Arabic [Libyan]: Arabic [Libyan] ✧ AYL ✧ Differs from Levantine with loans from Berber languages & Italian
٢٢ الربيع (al rabī) ٢٠١٨
Aragonese: Aragonese ✧ ARG ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in northern Aragon, endangered.
22 marzo 2018
Arikara: Arikara ✧ ARI ✧ A North American indigenous language from the Caddoan family, related to Pawnee but not mutually intelligible with it. A handful of speakers remain in White Shield, North Dakota.
22 huupirikaatít 2018
Aromanian (Vlach): Aromanian (Vlach) ✧ RUP ✧ Romance language. Mistake it for Romanian, though, and they’ll beat you up.
22 martsu 2018
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Savoyard]: Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Savoyard] ✧ FRP ✧ An Arpitan dialect spoken around Savoy in western France
22 mârs 2018
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Stéphenois]: Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Stéphenois] ✧ FRP ✧ Gallo-Romance, spoken around Saint-Étienne in eastern central France
22 mâ 2018
Assiniboine: Assiniboine ✧ ASB ✧ A Siouan language spoken by 150 or so in the northern US/Canadian Plains. Has nasal vowels.
22 wicinstayazan 2018
Asturian: Asturian ✧ AST ✧ Indo-European, Romance, northern Spain (Oviedo/Gijón area). Three genders.
22 marzu 2018
Atikamekw: Atikamekw ✧ ATJ ✧ Algonquian family, Cree complex, 5500 speakers in southwestern Quebec
22 nikikw pisimw 2018
Austro-Bavarian: Austro-Bavarian ✧ BAR ✧ A language akin to High German but highly divergent from it, tending to use more Latin, spoken in primarily rural areas of Austria, Bavaria, and South Tyrol. It divides into three main dialects.
22 Meaz 2018
Avar: Avar ✧ AVA ✧ Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Dagestan and Azerbaijan
22 марталъул 2018
Aymara: Aymara ✧ AYM ✧ South American indigenous. Unusual time/space conceptualization.
22 achuqa phaxsi 2018

Bafia: Bafia ✧ KSF ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by 60,000 in southwestern Cameroon. Mostly oral, but efforts at establishing a written standard are underway.
22 ŋwíí akǝ ráá 2018
Bagvalal: Bagvalal ✧ KVA ✧ Northeast Caucasian, seriously endangered, 1500 speakers in Dagestan. Bagvalal is only spoken in private; outside the home speakers rely on Avar (q.v.) or Russian.
22 чIахьвð 2018
Bahasa Banjar: Bahasa Banjar ✧ BJN ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by the Banjarese of South Kalimantan in Indonesia
22 Marat 2018
Bakweri (Mokpwe): Bakweri (Mokpwe) ✧ BGM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken in Cameroon
22 Etoma Matiy 2018
Baluchi: Baluchi ✧ BAL ✧ Indo-Iranian language related to Kurdish (q.v.). Uses Pashto and Roman script.
22 molmán 2018
Bambara: Bambara ✧ BAM ✧ Niger-Congo, Mande. Two tones, many French loanwords.
22 Marsi 2018
Bariai: Bariai ✧ BCH ✧ Austronesian family, Ngero group, 1400 speakers in Papua New Guinea
22 amarere 2018
Basaa: Basaa ✧ BAS ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four tones, 230,000 speakers in Camaroon.
22 maètuèmb 2018
Bashkir: Bashkir ✧ BAK ✧ Turkic language spoken in Bashkortostan between the Volga and Urals
22 буранай (buranai) 2018
Basque [Biscayan]: Basque [Biscayan] ✧ EUS ✧ Pre-Indo-European language isolate spoken in Pyrenees (Bay of Biscay)
22 epail or martxo 2018
Basque [Guipuzcoan]: Basque [Guipuzcoan] ✧ EUS ✧ Basque dialect spoken in Guipuzcoa
22 epail or marti 2018
Batak: Batak ✧ BYA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian family. Unique script. Spoken in north Sumatra.
22 sipaha hurung 2018
Bats (Tsova-Tush): Bats (Tsova-Tush) ✧ BBL ✧ Northeast Caucasian, Nakh branch but unintelligible with Chechen or Ingush
22 mart 2018
Belarusian (“White Russian”): Belarusian (“White Russian”) ✧ BEL ✧ East Slavic, closely related to Ukrainian (q.v.). Though Belarusian is official in Belarus, only about 12% of the population uses it.
22 сакавіка 2018
Bemba: Bemba ✧ BEM ✧ Niger-Congo family, southern Bantu. Tonal, spoken in Zambia.
22 kutumpu 2018
Bena: Bena ✧ BEZ ✧ Niger-Congo family, northeast Bantu, spoken in south central Tanzania
22 pa mwedzi gwa wudatu 2018
Beothuk: Beothuk ✧ BUE ✧ Spoken by a reclusive indigenous Newfoundland tribe, extinct since 1829 with the death of its last speaker, Shanawdithit.
22 manamiss 2018
Bezhta (Kapucha): Bezhta (Kapucha) ✧ KAP ✧ Preliterate Northeast Caucasian language spoken by around 6800 in Southern Dagestan.
22 март 2018
Bishnupriya: Bishnupriya ✧ BPY ✧ Indo-Aryan, 500,000 speakers. Uses rather uncommon Eastern Nagari script.
২২ mar ২০১৮
Bislama: Bislama ✧ BIS ✧ A creole combining English with Austronesian lanugages. Official in Vanuatu.
22 Maj 2018
Blackfoot (Siksika): Blackfoot (Siksika) ✧ BLA ✧ Algonquian family, unusual pitch system. Montana and southern Alberta.
22 sa’aiki’somm 2018
Blin (Bilen): Blin (Bilen) ✧ BYN ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. 70,000 speakers around Keren, Eritrea. Related to Tigrinya (q.v.) and Tigre (Tigrayit).
22 mar (kbla) 2018
Bourguignon-Morvandiau: Bourguignon-Morvandiau ✧  ✧ Endangered Langue d’Oïl spoken by < 2000 in Burgundy
22 mâr 2018
Breton (Armoric): Breton (Armoric) ✧ BRE ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Spoken in Brittany, related to Welsh and Cornish (q.v.).
22 mis meurzh 2018
Bukhori (Judaeo-Tajik): Bukhori (Judaeo-Tajik) ✧ BHH ✧ Persian substrate with Hebrew, Turkic, and Slavic loans
22 מאַרט (mart) 2018
Bulgarian [Eastern Rup]: Bulgarian [Eastern Rup] ✧ BUL ✧ South Slavic. From the Bulgarian town of Asenovgrad, late 19th century.
22 марта 2018
Bulgarian [Rhodope]: Bulgarian [Rhodope] ✧ BUL ✧ Another Bulgarian, here from the Rhodope Mountains around Smolyan
22 марта 2018
Bulgar: Bulgar ✧ XBO ✧ Presumably Turkic, unrelated to modern Bulgarian (which is Slavic). Bulgar’s closest modern relative is Chuvash (q.v.).
Burmese: Burmese ✧ MYA ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in Myanmar/Burma, tonal. Unusual sounds such as unvoiced Ms and Ns, uses special pronouns when speaking to monks.
၂၂ မတ် (maʿ) ၂၀၁၈
Burushaski: Burushaski ✧ BSK ✧ Language isolate spoken by 87,000 in Northern Pakistan. Actions must specify how loud something was.
22 booyingkus 2018
Buryat: Buryat ✧ BUA ✧ Altaic language related to Mongolian (q.v.). China, Mongolia, and eastern Russia.
22 гурбадугаар һара (gurbadugaar hara) 2018

Caddo: Caddo ✧ CAD ✧ Critically endangered member of the Caddoan family, related to Arikawa (q.v.) and Pawnee, spoken by about two dozen individuals in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Its dialects are mutually intelligible.
22 Wa’-nit 2018
Carrier: Carrier ✧ CRX ✧ Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. A few hundred speakers in British Columbia.
22 tɕ07ztɕo uzʔ 2018
Catalan: Catalan ✧ CAT ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the country of Andorra where it’s official. Its name comes from the word ‘castle.’
22 de març 2018
Central Dusun (Bunduliwan): Central Dusun (Bunduliwan) ✧ DTP ✧ A Malayo-Polynesian language, standardized by the Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah, and spoken by 140,000 in Malaysia and Brunei.
22 Tulan Gomot “Harvest month” 2018
Cham [Eastern]: Cham [Eastern] ✧ CJM ✧ Malayo-Polynesian. 300,000 speakers in Vietnam.
22 balan kluw 2018
Chamorro: Chamorro ✧ CHA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, ≈ 60,000 speakers in the Marianas archipelago
22 måtso 2018
Chatino [Zona Alta]: Chatino [Zona Alta] ✧ CLY ✧ Zapotecan language spoken by 23,000 in southern Oaxaca, Mexico
22 ko' marzo 2018
Chechen A: Chechen A ✧ CHE ✧ Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, related to Ingush (q.v.). It features an unusually large vowel inventory for a Caucasian language.
22 ибне (ybne) 2018
Chechen B: Chechen B ✧ CHE ✧ A second alternative terminology for Chechen
22 ниэкарг бутт (biekarg butt) 2018
Chechen C: Chechen C ✧ CHE ✧ A third alternative terminology for Chechen
22 зазадоккху-бутт (zazadokqu-butt) 2018
Cherokee: Cherokee ✧ CHR ✧ Iroquoian family. Unique script invented by Sequoyah. Spoken in Oklahoma.
22 ᎠᎾᏱᎵᏒ (Anayilisv) 2018
Chevak Cup’ik: Chevak Cup’ik ✧  ✧ Seriously endangered Yupi’k (q.v.) sub-dialect. Hooper Bay, Alaska.
22 Neqlelek 2018
Chewa (Nyanja): Chewa (Nyanja) ✧ NYA ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantoid. Spoken in Malawi and Zambia.
22 mwezi wa Malichi 2018
Cheyenne: Cheyenne ✧ CHY ✧ Algonquian family. Spoken in Montana & Oklahoma.
22 Ponoma’a’êhaseneeše’he 2018
Chickasaw: Chickasaw ✧ CIC ✧ Muskogean family, about 1000 speakers in Oklahoma, USA
22 Hushi Atuchina 2018
Chimané [Mosetén]: Chimané [Mosetén] ✧ CAS ✧ Language isolate (?) spoken by around 2000 north of La Paz, Bolivia
22 chhibinyatyi’ ïwaj 2018
Choctaw: Choctaw ✧ CHO ✧ Muskogean, related to Chickasaw (q.v.). South-central USA, 18,000 speakers.
22 Macha 2018
Chukchi: Chukchi ✧ CKT ✧ About 10,000 speakers in extreme eastern Siberia. Uses vowel harmony. Also, words cannot begin or end with consonant blends.
22 льатйъэлгын (l’atj”elgyn) 2018
Chuvash: Chuvash ✧ CHV ✧ Turkic, spoken in the Urals. Features “hard” versus “soft” words.
IIXX puš III/X✳✳
Circassian [Adyghe]: Circassian [Adyghe] ✧ ADY ✧ Northwest Caucasian language. Has 50-60 consonant sounds, mutually intelligible with Circassian [Kabardian] (q.v.).
22 гъэтхапэ 2018
Circassian [Kabardian]: Circassian [Kabardian] ✧ KBD ✧ The other major Circassian dialect, also called East Circassian. Mutually intelligible with Circassian [Adyghe] (q.v.).
22 гъатхэпэ (γatxāpé) 2018
Clackamas: Clackamas ✧ WAC ✧ Native American Chinookan family, northwestern Oregon, extinct
22 witcala’myxun 2018
Comorian [Maore](Shimaore): Comorian [Maore](Shimaore) ✧ SWB ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu. 80,000 speakers on French islands of Mayotte.
22 marsi 2018
Cornish: Cornish ✧ COR ✧ Celtic, Brythonic. Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, natively extinct but nowadays actively studied and taught.
22 mys Merth 2018
Corsican: Corsican ✧ COS ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Napoleon’s native language. Spoken on Corsica, endangered.
22 marzu 2018
Creek: Creek ✧ MUS ✧ Muskogean family, tonal with nazalizations, Oklahoma
22 tasahcucee 2018
Cree: Cree ✧ CRE ✧ Algonquian family. Formerly creolized with French & Scottish Gaelic.
22 migisupizum 2018
Crimean Tatar: Crimean Tatar ✧ CRH ✧ Although Turkic like Tatar, CT is not considered a Tatar dialect.
22 saban ayı 2018
Croatian: Croatian ✧ HRV ✧ South Slavic, spoken in Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and parts of Serbia
22 ožujak 2018
Cuman (Polovetsian): Cuman (Polovetsian) ✧ QWM ✧ Turkic language spoken by Cuman-Kipchaks in eastern Europe. Extinct by 1800. The invading Polovetsians portrayed in Borodin’s opera Prince Igor would have spoken this language.
22 ilyaz ay 2018
Curonian: Curonian ✧ XCU ✧ Extinct Balto-Slavic language spoken until the 16th century in parts of modern Latvia, Lithuania, and Germany.
22 mêrcs 2018
Czech (Bohemian): Czech (Bohemian) ✧ CZE ✧ West Slavic, mutually intelligible with Slovak
22 březen 2018

Dagaare: Dagaare ✧ DGA ✧ Niger-Congo, Gur branch. Unusual consonant blends such as GB, KP, and MGM.
22 MyuuraatasobO 2018
Dakota (Dakhota): Dakota (Dakhota) ✧ DAK ✧ Siouan family, mutually intelligible with Lakota. Around 20,000 speakers in an area centered on eastern South Dakota and taking in parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana.
22 Oomani 2018
Dalecarlian [Elfdalian]: Dalecarlian [Elfdalian] ✧ OVD ✧ North Germanic, endangered. Unlike Swedish, uses nasalized vowels (Ą, Ę, Į, Ų, Y̨, Ą̊ ) and like Icelandic uses eth (Ð).
22 mass 2018
Dalmatian: Dalmatian ✧ DLM ✧ Romance language once spoken on the Adriatic east coast. Its last surviving native speaker was marine mail carrier Tuone Udaina, who died in a roadwork accident in 1898.
22 márz 2018
Danish [Premodern/Folk]: Danish [Premodern/Folk] ✧ DAN ✧ Traditional Danish before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions
22 Tormåned 2018
Deg Xinag: Deg Xinag ✧ ING ✧ Athabaskan language, virtually extinct. Area around the lower Yukon River, Alaska.
22 Q’uliq’ay no’o “Hawk moon” 2018
Dena’ina [Outer Inlet]: Dena’ina [Outer Inlet] ✧ TFN ✧ Athabaskan, seriously endangered, Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula
22 ɬuq’aka ni’u 2018
Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan): Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan) ✧ KOY ✧ Athabascan, spoken by about 300 in east central Alaska, 3 dialects
22 Yeggets’e Nen’ Loyet 2018
Denya: Denya ✧ ANV ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantoid, Mamfe. Spoken in Cameroon by around 11,000
22 marisi 2018
Dhivehi (Maldivian): Dhivehi (Maldivian) ✧ DIV ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, uses the exclusive Thāna script which unlike Arabic explicitly shows all vowels. Republic of Maldives.
22 mar (māč) 2018
Dinka [Northwestern]: Dinka [Northwestern] ✧ DIW ✧ Nilo-Saharan, spoken in Sudan. Refugee population in Jacksonville, Florida.
22 aduoŋ 2018
Ditidaht: Ditidaht ✧ DTD ✧ Wakashan family, Vancouver Island. No nasal consonants, virtually extinct.
22 wiiʔibqƛabaał 2018
Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ): Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ) ✧ DGR ✧ Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Canada Northwest Territories, 2600 speakers.
22 Det’ôtso Zaà 2018
Dutch [Old]: Dutch [Old] ✧ ODT ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, spoken 9th to 12th centuries ce. Literary examples include The Leiden Willeram, a commentary on the Song of Solomon, and Hebban olla vogala (“Have all birds begun nests…”), both from c. 1100.
XXII mar (lentemaand) MMXVIII

Edo (Bini): Edo (Bini) ✧ BIN ✧ Niger-Congo family. Spoken by Benin Empire descendents.
22 uki egbo 2018
Emiliano-Romagnolo [Bolognese]: Emiliano-Romagnolo [Bolognese] ✧ EGL ✧ Romance language spoken in San Marino. Evolved in parallel with Italian.
22 mêrs 2018
English [Old] (Anglo-Saxon): English [Old] (Anglo-Saxon) ✧ ANG ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, spoken 5th to 12th centuries ce. Literary examples are Beowulf (975-1025) and the Charter of Cnut (c. 1017).
XXII mar (Hrēþmōnað) MMXVIII
Erromintxela: Erromintxela ✧ EMX ✧ A Basque/Romani hybrid language spoken by around a thousand Pyranees-dwelling Roma
22 martxoa 2018
Erzya: Erzya ✧ MYV ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to [but quite distinct from] Moksha (q.v.)
22 эйзюрков (eizürkov) 2018
Eskayan: Eskayan ✧ ESY ✧ Famously obscure Philippine language, extinct but heavily studied. Possibly a Cebuano-based cryptolect.
22 maso 2018
Estonian [Southern]: Estonian [Southern] ✧ VRO ✧ Finno-Ugric. In many respects closer to Võro than standard Estonian.
22 paastukuu 2018
Estonian: Estonian ✧ EST ✧ Finno-Ugric. Features 3 vowel lengths, 14 noun cases. Among some speakers Estonian and Finnish are mutually intelligible though there are many “false friends,” i.e., words that look and sound identical but carry one meaning in Estonian but a different one in Finnish.
22 paastukuu 2018
Etruscan: Etruscan ✧ ETT ✧ Language isolate spoken on the Italian peninsula, last recorded use was in 410 ce. Roman emperor Claudius’s first wife Plautia Urgulanilla was Etruscan and he wrote several books on the language. Some of our words (antenna, ceremony, histrionic) may derive from pre-Latin Etruscan roots.
XXII mar (velkitna) ⊕⊕XIIX
Even (Lamut): Even (Lamut) ✧ EVE ✧ Altaic, Tungusic. Endangered, with 7000-odd speakers in Siberia.
22 эври ечэн (ėvri ječėn) 2018
Evenki (Solon): Evenki (Solon) ✧ EVN ✧ Tungusic, related to Even (q.v.) but four times as many speakers. In descending order of frequency, Evenki appears in Roman, Cyrillic, and Mongolian characters.
22 ektengkire 2018
Ewe: Ewe ✧ EWE ✧ Niger-Congo family, tonal, spoken by 5 million in western Africa. A tilde nazalizes a vowel: ã, ẽ, ɛ̃, ɔ̃, ĩ, õ, and ũ.
22 Tedoxe 2018
Extremaduran: Extremaduran ✧ EXT ✧ Romance language spoken in west central Spain. Some differences from Spanish/Castilian: Infinitive verbs end in L, questions are reinforced by prepending the particles “lo,” “lu,” “pu,” or “pui.”
22 marçu or marzu 2018
Eyak: Eyak ✧ EYA ✧ Famously imperiled Athabaskan language. The last native speaker, Marie Smith Jones (Eyak: udAch' k'uqAXA'a'ch — “a sound that calls people from afar”), died in Anchorage, Alaska in 2008.
22 ɂu·nahd q’e·lu· ɂidǝla·k’ 2018

Fe’fe’: Fe’fe’ ✧ FMP ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantoid. 120,000 speakers around Bafang, Cameroon.
22 mbakngofat 2018
Flemish [West-Vlams]: Flemish [West-Vlams] ✧ VLS ✧ A highly divergent Dutch dialect with 1.2 million speakers
22 moarte 2018
Fon: Fon ✧ FON ✧ Niger-Congo, Gbe. Spoken by 2.2 million in Togo and Benin.
22 xwejí sùn 2018
Frankish (Old Franconian): Frankish (Old Franconian) ✧ FRK ✧ Germanic language spoken in medieval France between the 4th and 9th centuries, evolved into Old Dutch (q.v.). Charlemagne spoke a dialect of Frankish.
Frisian [North]: Frisian [North] ✧ FRR ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, about 10,000 speakers
22 marts 2018
Frisian [West/Lauwer]: Frisian [West/Lauwer] ✧ FRY ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic
22 foarjiersmoanne 2018
Frisian [West/Schiermonnikoog]: Frisian [West/Schiermonnikoog] ✧ FRY ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, nearly extinct (< 100 speakers)
22 feurjiersmond 2018
Friulian: Friulian ✧ FUR ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in northeastern Italy.
22 març 2018
Fur: Fur ✧ FVR ✧ Tentatively attributed to the Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in south central Darfur in western Sudan.
22 Sǔbuŋáŋ 2018
Futunan: Futunan ✧ FUT ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken on Futuna Island and New Caledonia
22 malesio 2018

Gaelic [Irish]: Gaelic [Irish] ✧ GLE ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic. Also spoken in Newfoundland.
22 Mí Márta 2018
Gaelic [Scottish Archaic]: Gaelic [Scottish Archaic] ✧ GLA ✧ As Scottish below, but older
22 Mìos Meadhanach an Earraich 2018
Gaelic [Scottish]: Gaelic [Scottish] ✧ GLA ✧ Like Irish Gaelic (q.v.), also Celtic, Goidelic. This is Highland Gaelic; Lowland is extinct.
22 Am Màrt 2018
Gagauz: Gagauz ✧ GAG ✧ Turkic language spoken in Moldova, Ukraine, Turkey, Russia
22 baba marta 2018
Galician: Galician ✧ GLG ✧ Sharply divergent Portuguese spoken in Galicia (northern Spain). Fidel Castroʼs father was Galician and emigrated to make his sugar cane fortune.
22 marzo 2018
Gallong [Lare]: Gallong [Lare] ✧ ADL ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Tani branch. Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.
22 lumái 2018
Gallo: Gallo ✧ ROA-GAL ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Approx. 28,000 speakers in the upper Brittany region. Gallo bears some mutual intelligibility with Norman (q.v.) dialects, though it lacks their Old Norse influences.
22 martz 2018
Garifuna: Garifuna ✧ CAB ✧ Arawakan language with French and Carib loans, Central America
22 ürüwa hati 2018
Gaulish: Gaulish ✧ XTG ✧ Indo-European, Celtic. Pre-Roman France, extinct by 7th century ce.
Ga: Ga ✧ GAA ✧ Niger-Congo family, Kwa division, first written in 1764. Tonal.
22 Ochokrikri 2018
Georgian [Old]: Georgian [Old] ✧ KAT ✧ Georgian from approximately 800-1000 ce
22 მირკანი (mirk’ani) 2018
Georgian: Georgian ✧ KAT ✧ Kartvelian group, lacks an F sound natively. Related to Svan but completely unintelligible with it.
კბ მარტი (mart’i) ციჱ
German [Old High]: German [Old High] ✧ GOH ✧ Earliest attested German language, c. 500-1050 ce
XXII Lenzinmānōd MMXVIII
German [mid 17th century]: German [mid 17th century] ✧ GER ✧ The High German shown on a 1665 calendar
22 Mertz 2018
Gitxsan: Gitxsan ✧ GIT ✧ Tsimshianic family, British Columbia, < 1000 speakers
22 hlox̱sa 'wihlax̱s 2018
Gothic: Gothic ✧ GOT ✧ Indo-European, East Germanic, extinct by 10th century
XXII mar (austramenoþs) MMXVIII
Grecanic (Griko): Grecanic (Griko) ✧  ✧ Variety of modern Greek with about 50% mutual intelligibility with it. About 28,000 speakers in the toe and heel of Italy.
22 Marti 2018
Greenlandic (Kalaallisut): Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) ✧ KAL ✧ Language from the Eskimo-Aleut family, now official in Greenland
22 Martsi 2018
Guaraní: Guaraní ✧ GUG ✧ Tupian family. Spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay.
22 jasyapy 2018
Guernésiais: Guernésiais ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. A Norman dialect spoken by about 200 on the Channel Island of Guernsey. Victor Hugo contemporary George Métivier (1790–1881) was a widely celebrated author in the Guernésiais dialect.
22 mar 2018
Guhu-Samane: Guhu-Samane ✧ GHS ✧ Binanderean family isolate, Papua New Guinea, unrelated to any known language
22 Maasi 2018
Gullah (Sea Islands Creole): Gullah (Sea Islands Creole) ✧ GUL ✧ English-based, Niger-Congo influences. “Kumbaya” comes from Gullah.
22 Maa’ch 2018
Gwich’in: Gwich’in ✧ GWI ✧ Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. 700 speakers in Alaska + northwest Canada.
22 Ch’izhin Zhrii 2018

Haida: Haida ✧ HAI ✧ Language isolate, < 100 native speakers in southern Alaska
22 Xitgáas Kungáay 2018
Haitian Creole: Haitian Creole ✧ HAT ✧ French-derived but borrows from Taíno, Portuguese, African languages
22 mas 2018
Hakha Chin (Lai): Hakha Chin (Lai) ✧ CNH ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, spoken in Burma, Bangladesh, and India
22 March thla 2018
Hakka: Hakka ✧ HAK ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Uses NG sounds and final M, unlike, say, Mandarin Chinese.
22 sam ŋiet 2018
Harari: Harari ✧ HAR ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Semitic, ≈ 25,000 speakers in Ethiopia. Once written with Arabic script, but nowadays with the Ethiopic abugida and the Roman alphabet.
22 shíshtí-khá warhay 2018
Havasupai-Hualapai: Havasupai-Hualapai ✧ YUF ✧ Yuman family, around 1500 speakers in northwestern Arizona
22 Mad Haya Hla 2018
Hiligaynon (Ilongo): Hiligaynon (Ilongo) ✧ HIL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, Visaya group, spoken in Philippines.
22 mar (dagangbulan) 2018
Hmong: Hmong ✧ HMN ✧ Hmong-Mien family. Seven tones, including creaky and breathy.
22 Peb hlis ntuj 2018
Holikachuk: Holikachuk ✧ HOI ✧ Athabaskan language, central Alaska. Last fluent speaker died in March 2012.
22 Q’iulq’iy Zo’ 2018
Homshetsi (Hamshen): Homshetsi (Hamshen) ✧ AXM(?) ✧ Archaic Armenian dialect spoken by 14,000 in Turkey, written only since 1995. Homshetsi and modern Armenian are not mutually intelligible.
22 մարտ (mart) 2018
Hungarian [Premodern]: Hungarian [Premodern] ✧ OHU ✧ Church-based Hungarian, before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions
22 böjtmás hava 2018
Hungarian [Reform Era]: Hungarian [Reform Era] ✧ HUN ✧ Hungarian during the nationalistic fervor of 1825-1848
22 tavaszelő 2018

Iaai: Iaai ✧ IAI ✧ Spoken by around 4000 on Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia. Sports a highly unusual set of sounds for a Polynesian language, and stands alone in the world for its voiceless retroflex nasal.
22 maac 2018
Idu Mishmi (Chulikata): Idu Mishmi (Chulikata) ✧ CLK ✧ Sino-Tibetan, endangered. India’s Dibang Valley, 3 dialects.
22 छङ् (chang) 2018
Igbo: Igbo ✧ IBO ✧ Niger-Congo, tonal, proverb-heavy, Nigeria. Actor Chiwetel Ejiofor (Amistad, Twelve Years a Slave, etc.) is Igbo.
22 ónwa áton’áfò 2018
Ingrian (Izhorian): Ingrian (Izhorian) ✧ IZH ✧ Finno-Ugric language with only 200 speakers around Gulf of Finland
22 martti 2018
Ingush: Ingush ✧ INH ✧ Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, tonal. Related to Chechen (q.v.).
22 мутхьал (mutkhal) 2018
Inuktitut: Inuktitut ✧ IKU ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, 35,000 speakers north of tree line in Canada
22 ᓇᑦᓯᐊᓕᐅᑦ (natsialiut) 2018
Inupiaq [North Slope]: Inupiaq [North Slope] ✧ IPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, extreme northwestern Alaska
22 paniqsiqsiivik 2018
Isan: Isan ✧ TTS ✧ A group of Lao dialects spoken in northeastern Thailand by ethnic Isans.
22 meenakom 2018
Istriot [Rovignese]: Istriot [Rovignese] ✧ IST ✧ Romance language spoken by around 400 on Croatia’s Istrian Peninsula, closely related to extinct Dalmatian (q.v.). Not to be confused with Istro-Romanian (1100 speakers) or the Istrian dialect of Venetian.
22 màrso 2018
Itelmen: Itelmen ✧ ITL ✧ A Chukotko-Kamchatkan language, Russian Far East, < 100 speakers
22 адукоач (adukoač) 2018

Jèrriais: Jèrriais ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Norse influences. A Norman dialect spoken by 3000 on the Channel Island of Jersey. Actress and socialite Lillie Langtry (1853-1929) quite famously spoke Jèrriais.
22 mâr 2018
Japanese [Premodern]: Japanese [Premodern] ✧ OJP ✧ Dating from the Heian Period (794-1185)
22 弥生 (yayoi) “Month of growth” 2018
Jarai: Jarai ✧ JRA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language related to Cham (q.v.), spoken in Vietnam and Cambodia
22 blan klâo 2018
Jerba Berber: Jerba Berber ✧ JBN ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Zenati branch, spoken on the Tunisian island of Jerba — the supposed home of the Lotus Eaters of Greek folklore.
22 mars 2018
Jingpho (Kachin): Jingpho (Kachin) ✧ KAC ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Bramaputran. Kachin State, Burma, and Yunan Province, China. Five tones, commonly written with the Roman alphabet.
22 wut 2018
Jju: Jju ✧ KAJ ✧ Niger-Congo, West Plateau. 300,000 speakers, Nigeria.
22 Hywan A̱tat 2018

K’iche’ (Quiché): K’iche’ (Quiché) ✧ QUC ✧ Mayan family, spoken by around a million in Guatemala
22 rox ik’ 2018
Kabiye: Kabiye ✧ KBP ✧ Niger-Congo, Gur. Spoken by 1.2 million in Togo, Benin, and Ghana.
22 tozo fenaɣ 2018
Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean): Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean) ✧ KEA ✧ The oldest surviving creole, based on 15th century Portuguese
22 marsu 2018
Kabyle (Taqbaylit): Kabyle (Taqbaylit) ✧ KAB ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, spoken in Algeria. Masculine nouns begin with A (ⵔ); feminine nouns begin and end with T (ⵜ).
22 ⵎⴻⵖⵔⴻⵙ (meɣres) 2018
Kadazan Dusun [Central Bundu-Liwan]: Kadazan Dusun [Central Bundu-Liwan] ✧ DTP ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Kadazan and Dusun people in Malaysia
22 Tulan Gomot “Harvest month” 2018
Kainji [Piti-Atsam]: Kainji [Piti-Atsam] ✧ CCH/PCN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Platoid. Spoken by around 30,000 in Nigeria.
22 pen atat 2018
Kalapuya: Kalapuya ✧ KYL ✧ Tiny language family once spoken in Western Oregon, extinct
22 Atcha-uyu 2018
Kalenjin (Nandi): Kalenjin (Nandi) ✧ KLN ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in east Africa’s Rift Valley
22 kiptamo 2018
Kalmyk Oirat: Kalmyk Oirat ✧ XAL ✧ Altaic, Mongolic, grammatically genderless, earliest written samples dating from the 11th century. The Ewok speech in Return of the Jedi was inspired by the distinctive sound of Kalmyk.
22 moġa 2018
Kanza (Kaw): Kanza (Kaw) ✧ KSK ✧ A language from the Siouan family spoken by the Kaw people of Kansas, nominally extinct. The last native speakers were Maud McCauley Rowe (d. 1978), Ralph Pepper (d. 1982), and Walter Kekahbah (d. 1983).
22 hoⁿba oscéje 2018
Kapingamarangi (Kirinit): Kapingamarangi (Kirinit) ✧ KPG ✧ Polynesian language with around 3000 speakers on the Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei Islands of Micronesia
22 dolu malama 2018
Karachay-Balkar: Karachay-Balkar ✧ KRC ✧ Turkic language spoken in the Kabardino-Balkaria region of north Caucasus
22 тотурну ал айы 2018
Karakalpak: Karakalpak ✧ KAA ✧ Turkic, closely related to Kazakh (q.v.), about 400,000 speakers in Uzbekistan
22 ҳамал (hamal) 2018
Karang: Karang ✧ KZR ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four dialects, 18,000 speakers in Camaroon.
22 few gel zaŋna 2018
Karelian [Livvi/Olonets]: Karelian [Livvi/Olonets] ✧ KRL ✧ About 30,000 speakers, mostly clustered northeast of Saint Petersburg
22 kevätkuudu 2018
Karelian [Standard]: Karelian [Standard] ✧ KRL ✧ Finno-Ugric. Only non-Karelian spoilsports call it a Finnish dialect.
22 kevätkuu 2018
Karen: Karen ✧ KAR ✧ Tibeto-Burman subfamily, spoken by “giraffe” women (& hopefully their men)
၂၂ mar (thway kaw) ၂၀၁၈
Kayan (Baram): Kayan (Baram) ✧ KCT ✧ A Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in central Borneo
22 bulan telo’ 2018
Kazakh: Kazakh ✧ KAZ ✧ Altaic, Turkic. Cyrillic alphabet, plans to switch to Roman.
22 наурыз (naurız) 2018
Keresan: Keresan ✧ KEE/KJQ ✧ Language isolate group spoken in New Mexico. Some vowels are whispered.
22 shch’ami daawaatra 2018
Ket: Ket ✧ KET ✧ The only surviving language from the Yeniseian family and seriously endangered, with 150 speakers in Siberia’s Yenisei River valley
22 диӷып (diɣyp) 2018
Khakas [Koybal]: Khakas [Koybal] ✧ KJH ✧ Turkic language spoken in the Khakassia Republic, north of Altai Mountains
22 kâñ 2018
Khakas [Sagay]: Khakas [Sagay] ✧ KJH ✧ Another dialect of Khakas
22 ulugh körîk ayï 2018
Khanty (Ostyak): Khanty (Ostyak) ✧ KCA ✧ Finno-Ugric language related to Mansi (q.v.) and Hungarian. 12,000 speakers.
22 сӓри кӱрәк тыӆәс 2018
Khasi: Khasi ✧ KHA ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, spoken in the Meghalaya state in India. Uses the Roman alphabet, deleting C, F, Q, V, X, and G (by itself) but adds Ng, Ï, and Ñ.
22 lyber 2018
Khmer (Cambodian): Khmer (Cambodian) ✧ KHM ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, Mon-Khmer branch, heavy Sanskrit influences
22 mar (mik nea) 2018
Khoekhoe (Nama): Khoekhoe (Nama) ✧ NAQ ✧ A language from the Khoe family spoken by about 300,000 in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. It’s a tonal language with 20 clicks and 11 other non-click consonants.
22 ǀkhuǁkhâb 2018
Khowar: Khowar ✧ KHW ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, 450,000 speakers mostly in Pakistan. Five dialects.
22 aliyan 2018
Kiga (Rukiga): Kiga (Rukiga) ✧ CGG ✧ Niger-Congo, Central Bantu. Uganda and Rwanda.
22 Okwakashatu 2018
Kiliwa: Kiliwa ✧ KLB ✧ Yuman language, 50 speakers, Baja California. Word for Pacific Ocean is Kuñím.
22 mat chipam 2018
Kiribati: Kiribati ✧ GIL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian. Name pronounced KEER-i-bass.
22 Maati 2018
Kokborok (Tripuri): Kokborok (Tripuri) ✧ TRP ✧ Sino-Tibetan language of India and Bangladesh. Uses high and low tones.
22 remtham talni mung 2018
Komi (Ziryan): Komi (Ziryan) ✧ KOM ✧ Uralic, Finno-Ugric. Spoken by 220,000 in Russia’s Komi Republic.
22 рака (raka) 2018
Kom: Kom ✧ BKM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Tri-tonal, 127,000 speakers in northwest Camaroon
22 njoñ aèntÏìm 2018
Kongo: Kongo ✧ KON ✧ Bantu language spoken in Angola and both Congos. The words zombie and goober, and possibly funky, are Kongo loans.
22 sánza ya mísáto 2018
Korku: Korku ✧ KFQ ✧ Austro-Asiatic, Munda. 480,000 speakers in rural central and eastern India.
22 phagun 2018
Koyukon: Koyukon ✧ KOY ✧ Athabaskan, 150 speakers left (Alaska), first documented in 1898
22 Kk’olkk’eey zo’o’ 2018
Kumeyaay (Diegueño): Kumeyaay (Diegueño) ✧ DIH ✧ Yuman family, spoken by ≈ 100 in southern California and the Baja
22 halakwol 2018
Kumyk: Kumyk ✧ KUM ✧ Turkic language spoken by about 400,000 in Dagestan. Influenced by northeast Caucasian languages (Avar, Dargwa, Chechen) as well as Ossetian and Russian. (Not to be confused with Cuman, which is extinct.)
22 оьркий (orky) 2018
Kurdish [Kurmanji]: Kurdish [Kurmanji] ✧ KMR ✧ Indo-European family, Indo-Iranian. The dialect of 75% of Kurdish speakers.
22 adar or avdar 2018
Kurdish [Sorani]: Kurdish [Sorani] ✧ CKB ✧ The Kurdish dialect second in number of speakers to Kurmanji
22 âdâr 2018
Kutenai (Ktunaxa): Kutenai (Ktunaxa) ✧ KUT ✧ Language isolate spoken by 100 (British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho). No distinction between voiced versus unvoiced consonants, word order is flexible.
22 ǂik’uq’ 2018
Kven: Kven ✧ FKV ✧ A seriously endangered Finnic language spoken by a few thousand mostly in the communities of Storfjord and Porsanger in Northern Norway. Kven and Finnish are mutually intelligible.
22 marsikuu 2018
Kyrgyz: Kyrgyz ✧ KIR ✧ Altaic family, Turkic. Spoken by 4 million in Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China.
22 calğan Kuran 2018

Lach: Lach ✧  ✧ is either a dialect of Czech, Polish, or Silesian — depending on whom you believe. Óndra Łysohorsky (1905-1989), arguably the most celebrated Lach poet who resolutely refused to compose in either Polish or Czech, almost singlehandedly set the standard for literary Lach.
22 mařed 2018
Ladakhi (Bhoti): Ladakhi (Bhoti) ✧ LBJ ✧ A Sino-Tibetan language spoken by around 130,000 in India, Nepal, China, and Pakistan. Ladakhi and Tibetan are closely related but not mutually intelligible.
22 dawa saum pa 2018
Ladin [Badiotto]: Ladin [Badiotto] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin is a Romance language related to Romansh (q.v.). This particular dialect is spoken by a few in the South Tyrol.
22 merz 2018
Ladin [Cadorean]: Ladin [Cadorean] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin dialect spoken by a handful of speakers in Cadore in the Italian province of Belluno bordering on Austria
22 marze 2018
Ladin [Fassa Valley]: Ladin [Fassa Valley] ✧ LLD ✧ Another Ladin dialect, 600 speakers in Trentino in the Italian Alpines
22 mèrz 2018
Ladin [Gardenese]: Ladin [Gardenese] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin dialect, 8000 speakers in the Dolomites of South Tyrol in northern Italy
22 merz 2018
Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo): Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo) ✧ LAD ✧ Medieval Spanish substrate with Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish loans. Spoken by Sephardic Jews worldwide. Historically, printed Ladino has used the 15th century Hebrew script called Rashi, shown here.
810x2 (marso) mar 220
Lahu: Lahu ✧ LHU ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, spoken in China, Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos
22 mâɂchì 2018
Lakota: Lakota ✧ LKT ✧ Siouan-Catawban family, spoken by ≈ 6000 in the US Dakotas. This is the language heard in the 1990 movie Dances with Wolves.
22 istawicayazan wi 2018
Lak: Lak ✧ LBE ✧ Northeast Caucasian, about 160,000 speakers in southern Dagestan
22 шамилчинмур барз 2018
Lango (Lwo): Lango (Lwo) ✧ LAJ ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Uganda. All numerals under 20 begin with A.
22 Kʉkeenda 2018
Lao: Lao ✧ LAO ✧ Tai-Kadai family, 6 tones. Many Indo-European loans via Pali/Sanskrit.
22 deuan meena 2018
Latgalian: Latgalian ✧ LTG ✧ Baltic, 150,000 speakers. Related to Latvian, Samogitian, and Lithuanian (q.v.).
22 pavasara mieness 2018
Laz (Lazuri): Laz (Lazuri) ✧ LZZ ✧ A Kartvelian language spoken by ≈ 30,000 on the southeast shore of the Black Sea
22 mirk’ani 2018
Leonese: Leonese ✧  ✧ Endangered Romance language undergoing a revival in northwestern Spain
22 marzu 2018
Lepcha: Lepcha ✧ LEP ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, non-tonal, unique script. West Bengal, Nepal, Bhutan.
22 mar (thaon lavo) 2018
Lezgian [Premodern]: Lezgian [Premodern] ✧ LEZ ✧ Conjectured Lezgian terminology of yore
22 яр or тIул 2018
Lezgian: Lezgian ✧ LEZ ✧ Northeast Caucasian. Many throaty phonemes. Official in Dagestan.
22 ибне (ibne) 2018
Ligurian [Monégasque]: Ligurian [Monégasque] ✧ LIJ ✧ Ligurian dialect spoken by 5600 in Monaco including Princess Stephanie. Employs the non-Italian ü, œ, and ç.
22 marsu 2018
Ligurian: Ligurian ✧ LIJ ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Northern Italy. Endangered.
22 marsu 2018
Limburgish: Limburgish ✧ LIM ✧ Germanic language, Limburg & Rhineland areas. Quite unusually, it’s tonal.
22 Miert 2018
Lingala: Lingala ✧ LIN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, tonal. Spoken in both Congos.
22 sánzá ya mísáto 2018
Lisu: Lisu ✧ LIS ✧ Sino-Tibetan, related to Lahu (q.v.). Uses unusual Fraser alphabet from 1915 in which dots, commas, apostrophes, and bars serve to indicate tones.
22 mar (sa44 ha21) 2018
Lithuanian: Lithuanian ✧ LIT ✧ Baltic, 3 million speakers. Unusually, its alphabet places Y after Į.
22 kovas 2018
Livonian: Livonian ✧ LIV ✧ Related to Finnish and Estonian (q.v.). Its last native speaker, Grizelda Kristiņa, died June 2, 2013 aged 103.
22 kievádkú 2018
Lombard (Insubric) [Eastern]: Lombard (Insubric) [Eastern] ✧ LMO ✧ Romance, spoken in northern Italy around Bergamo, Brescia and Crema.
22 mars 2018
Lombard (Insubric) [Western]: Lombard (Insubric) [Western] ✧ LMO ✧ Romance, spoken in southern Switzerland and northern Italy around Milan
22 marz 2018
Louisiana Creole: Louisiana Creole ✧ LOU ✧ French-derived, African + other elements. Unlike French, verbs don’t conjugate.
22 mars 2018
Lower Tanana: Lower Tanana ✧ TAA ✧ Endangered Athabaskan language with a dozen or so speakers. Minto, Alaska.
22 ch’eyona’ nondedekden 2018
Lozi: Lozi ✧ LOZ ✧ Niger-Congo family/Bantu, spoken in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. It arose as a hybrid of two other Bantu languages, Luyana and Kololo.
22 Liatamani 2018
Luba-Katanga: Luba-Katanga ✧ LUB ✧ Niger-Congo family/Bantu, spoken in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
22 Lusòlo 2018
Lugbara: Lugbara ✧ LGG ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Uganda (west Nile region) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. First written in 1918, uses Roman alphabet except for Q and X.
22 Zengulu 2018
Luo: Luo ✧ LUO ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Kenya and Tanzania. Barak Obama Sr. was Luo.
22 Dwe mar adek 2018
Luxembourgish: Luxembourgish ✧ LTZ ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, French influences. Its CH is pronounced like English SH. “Moselle Franconian” is an umbrella term for Luxembourgish and its related West Germanic dialects.
22 Lenzmount 2018

Māori (Te Reo): Māori (Te Reo) ✧ MRI ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, closely related to Tahitian. Personal pronouns come in singular, dual, and plural.
22 Poutū te rangi or Maehe 2018
Maasai: Maasai ✧ MAS ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in Kenya & Tanzania. Tonal.
22 oeníoiŋok 2018
Makedonian [Archaic/Folk]: Makedonian [Archaic/Folk] ✧ MKD ✧ Indo-European, South Slavic. Lacks the noun case system characteristic of most other Slavic languages. Not to be confused with Macedonian Greek, a Hellenic dialect spoken during the 1st millennium bce.
22 цутар (tsutar) “budding” 2018
Malagasy [Antankaraña]: Malagasy [Antankaraña] ✧ XMV ✧ Dialect spoken by ethnic Antankaraña in northern Madagascar
22 fisahamasay 2018
Malagasy [Sakalava]: Malagasy [Sakalava] ✧ SKG ✧ Dialect spoken by ethnic Sakalava in northern Madagascar
22 faosa 2018
Malagasy: Malagasy ✧ MLG ✧ Spoken in Madagascar but non-African (Malayo-Polynesian, from Borneo)
22 Martsa 2018
Malecite-Passamaquoddy: Malecite-Passamaquoddy ✧ PQM ✧ Algonquian family, spoken in New Brunswick & Maine, endangered
22 siqoni-kisuhs 2018
Maltese: Maltese ✧ MLT ✧ Unique Arabic/Sicilian hybrid, 370,000 speakers (Malta)
22 Marzu 2018
Manchu: Manchu ✧ MNC ✧ Tungusic language spoken by fewer than 100 in northeast China
22 mar (ilan biya) 2018
Mandinka [Traditional]: Mandinka [Traditional] ✧ MNK ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande branch, Manding group. Bitonal.
22 annabi sukuwo 2018
Mandinka: Mandinka ✧ MNK ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande branch, Manding group. Bitonal.
22 maaci karoo 2018
Manipuri: Manipuri ✧ MNI ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in India, Bangladesh, Burma. Unique script.
22 mar (inga) 2018
Mansi: Mansi ✧ MNS ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to Hungarian, 3000 speakers in central Siberia
22 маньполь (man’pol’) 2018
Manx: Manx ✧ GLV ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Isle of Man. Its last native speaker was Ned Maddrell (1877-1974).
22 Mayrnt 2018
Mapudungun: Mapudungun ✧ ARN ✧ Language isolate spoken in Chile and Argentina, writing system under dispute
22 glor-cújen 2018
Mari [Meadow]: Mari [Meadow] ✧ MHR ✧ Finno-Ugric language spoken in Russia’s Mari Replublic. Nine noun cases.
22 ӱярня (üyarnya) 2018
Marshallese: Marshallese ✧ MAH ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, two main dialects, spoken on the Marshall Islands.
22 Ṃaaj 2018
Maxakalí: Maxakalí ✧ MBL ✧ Language with its own family spoken by a few hundred in Minas Gerais, Brazil
22 maxxo 2018
Mbuko: Mbuko ✧ MQB ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Chadic. 13,000 speakers in northern Camaroon.
22 kiya féëo 2018
Meänkieli: Meänkieli ✧ FIT ✧ Endangered Finnish dialect group spoken in Sweden’s Norrbotten province
22 marsi 2018
Menominee: Menominee ✧ MEZ ✧ Algonquian family, spoken in northern Wisconsin, nearly extinct
22 Wanäëw kësoq 2018
Miami-Illinois: Miami-Illinois ✧ MIA ✧ Algonquian, originally midwestern US. Extinct but under revival.
22 mahkoonsa kiilhswa 2018
Michif: Michif ✧ CRG ✧ A French-Cree hybrid, < 1000 speakers. North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba.
22 már 2018
Micmac: Micmac ✧ MIC ✧ Eastern Algonquian family. At one time it used Egyptianesque hieroglyphics.
22 Si’ko’ku’s 2018
Min Dong [Fuzhou]: Min Dong [Fuzhou] ✧ CDO ✧ Sino-Tibetan, unintelligible with Mandarin or Cantonese, untra-complex tonality
22 dâ̤ săng nguŏk 2018
Mingrelian: Mingrelian ✧ XMF ✧ An endangered Kartvelian language related to Georgian and Laz (q.v.), with some mutual intelligibility with the latter. Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia spoke Mingrelian.
კბ მელახი (melakhi) ციჱ
Mirandese: Mirandese ✧ MWL ✧ Romance language, at least 1000 years removed from Portuguese.
22 márcio 2018
Mizo (Lushai): Mizo (Lushai) ✧ LUS ✧ Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar, Bangladesh & India
22 vau thla 2018
Mohawk: Mohawk ✧ MOH ✧ Iroquoian family. Curiously, no labial (lip-produced) consonants.
22 ennisko:wa 2018
Moksha: Moksha ✧ MDF ✧ Finno-Ugric language, spoken along the central Volga. There are three main dialects, of which the central “ä” is the literary standard.
IIΛΛ martkov III/Λ10001000
Mongolian: Mongolian ✧ MON ✧ Altaic. Observes vowel harmony and lacks the standard L sound.
22 гуравдугаар сар (guravdugaar sar) 2018
Montagnais Innu: Montagnais Innu ✧ MOE ✧ Algonquian language related to Cree (q.v.), spoken by 11,000 in Labrador and Quebec
22 uinashku-pishimu 2018
Mossi (Mòoré): Mossi (Mòoré) ✧ MOS ✧ A Niger-Congo language spoken by 5 million, mostly in Burkina Faso
22 tuulgo 2018
Mundang: Mundang ✧ MUA ✧ A Niger-Congo language spoken by 250,000 in southern Chad
22 cokcwaklii 2018

Nāhuatl: Nāhuatl ✧ NAH ✧ Uto-Aztecan, from the original language group of the Aztecs, presently 1.7 million speakers. Of its many dialects, Huasteca Nāhuatl is the most heavily spoken.
22 tlayeti 2018
Nàmá (Khoekhoe): Nàmá (Khoekhoe) ✧ HQM ✧ Khoisan family. Consonants include 20 clicks. Formerly called Hottentot.
22 !hoaǂgais or ǀkhuuǁkhâb 2018
Nakhi (Naxi): Nakhi (Naxi) ✧ NXQ ✧ Sino-Tibetan, spoken in Yunnan, famous for its Dongba “picture” writing.
22 salwa 2018
Nanai (Gold): Nanai (Gold) ✧ GLD ✧ Tungusic. 4000 speakers, decendents of Manchurian Jurchen
22 хун биани 2018
Navajo (Diné bizaad): Navajo (Diné bizaad) ✧ NAV ✧ Athabaskan family, southwest US. Tonal, uses ejectives.
22 Wóózhchʼį́į́d 2018
Ndebele: Ndebele ✧ NBL ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Spoken by descendants of King Mzilikazi (1790-1868).
22 Ntakana 2018
Ndyuka (Aukan): Ndyuka (Aukan) ✧ DJK ✧ English-based creole spoken by the Maroon people of Suriname
22 dii mun 2018
Neapolitan: Neapolitan ✧ NAP ✧ Romance language spoken in central Italy, named not after the city but the Kingdom of Naples. Pronunciation and grammar differ substantially from that of Italian, though it’s easy for true Neapolitan speakers to affect Italian by veering away from those distinctions.
22 marz 2018
Nenets: Nenets ✧ YRK ✧ Finno-Ugric family, Samoyedic (no, not the dog). Extreme northwest Russia.
22 sye nits’ yriy 2018
Nez Perce: Nez Perce ✧ NEZ ✧ Plateau Penutian family, Idaho, < 200 speakers, revival underway
22 Latíit’aal 2018
Nganasan: Nganasan ✧ NIO ✧ Finno-Ugric family, Samoyedic. Extreme north central Russia, ≈ 1000 speakers.
22 señi 2018
Ngiemboon: Ngiemboon ✧ NNH ✧ Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid. Province de l'Ouest and Bamboutos in Cameroon.
22 saŋ lepyè shúm 2018
Nheengatu: Nheengatu ✧ YRL ✧ Tupi-Guaraní family, spoken in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. The name means “good tongue.”
22 îasysapyra 2018
Nisga’a: Nisga’a ✧ NCG ✧ Tsimshianic family, seriously endangered, British Columbia (Canada)
22 Xsaak 2018
Niuean: Niuean ✧ NIU ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Niue. Unlike Hawaiian it uses no glottal stop.
22 Masi 2018
Nivkh (Gilyak): Nivkh (Gilyak) ✧ NIV ✧ Language isolate spoken on western Sakhalin Island and adjacent mainland by around 1000. Nivkh is genderless and doesn’t have adjectives. It uses a modified Cyrillic alphabet with 46 letters.
22 chrad long 2018
Nkore: Nkore ✧ NYN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Spoken by 2.3 million in southwestern Uganda.
22 katumba 2018
Nogai: Nogai ✧ NOG ✧ Turkic, spoken in southwestern Russia (Tuva area) by Golden Horde descendents
22 навруз ай 2018
Norman: Norman ✧ NRF ✧ Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Spoken by about 100,000 in Normandy.
22 mâr 2018
Nuer: Nuer ✧ NUS ✧ Nilo-Saharan. South Sudan, Ethiopia. Breathy vs. non-breathy vowels.
22 Duɔɔ̱ŋ 2018
Nuu-chah-nulth [Barkley]: Nuu-chah-nulth [Barkley] ✧ NUK ✧ Wakashan family, Vancouver Island. Unusually complex phonology, seriously endangered.
22 ʕaayaqimł 2018

Occitan [Aranese]: Occitan [Aranese] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in northeastern Spain’s Aran Valley.
22 març 2018
Occitan [Gascon]: Occitan [Gascon] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in Gascony in southern France.
22 març 2018
Occitan [Provençal]: Occitan [Provençal] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance, closely related to Catalan (q.v.). Southern France.
22 mars 2018
Occitan [Vivaro-Alpine]: Occitan [Vivaro-Alpine] ✧ OCI ✧ Seriously endangered Occitan dialect spoken in SE France and NW Italy.
22 març 2018
Ojibwe [Western]: Ojibwe [Western] ✧ OJW ✧ Algonquian family, 57,000 speakers (all dialects inclusive) in north-central US and Canada
22 onaabani giizis 2018
Old Church Romanian: Old Church Romanian ✧ RON ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Pre-20th century.
22 mărţişor 2018
Old Church Slavonic: Old Church Slavonic ✧ CHU ✧ Indo-European, Slavic, dating from the 9th century. The original model for the Cyrillic alphabet, it called itself словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ (slověnĭskŭ językŭ).
XXII mar (mart) MMXVIII
Onondaga: Onondaga ✧ ONO ✧ Iroquoian family, about 50 speakers in Ontario and New York State
22 tichkôna 2018
Oroch: Oroch ✧ OAC ✧ Tungusic language, 200 speakers in eastern Siberia. Critically endangered.
22 беэ туа 2018
Oromo: Oromo ✧ ORM ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. Non-Roman scripts once banned.
22 bitooteessa 2018
Ossetian [Digor]: Ossetian [Digor] ✧ OSS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken mainly by Moslems
22 marti 2018
Ossetian [Ironian]: Ossetian [Ironian] ✧ OSS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken mainly by Christians
22 комбæттæны мæй (kombættæni mæy) 2018

Ös (Chulym): Ös (Chulym) ✧ CLW ✧ Western Turkic language. Moribund, spoken by a few dozen in southwestern Siberia north of the Altay Mountains. During the Soviet era school children were punished when caught speaking Ös.
22 kučugen ai 2018

Pökoot: Pökoot ✧ KLN ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Kalenjin. 264,000 speakers in Kenya, Uganda.
22 Pokokwo 2018
Palauan: Palauan ✧ PAU ✧ Austronesian family, about 15,000 speakers. Palau, Guam, Mariana Islands.
22 Ongede el buil 2018
Palor (Sili): Palor (Sili) ✧ FAP ✧ Niger-Congo family, 9,700 speakers (Thies area of Senegal)
22 mars 2018
Papago: Papago ✧ OOD ✧ Uto-Aztecan family. Spoken in Arizona & northern Mexico.
22 Chehthagi Mashath 2018
Pashto [Eastern]: Pashto [Eastern] ✧ PUS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken in northeastern Pakistan
22 rumbey chor 2018
Pashto [Western]: Pashto [Western] ✧ PUS ✧ Pashto dialect spoken in western Afghanistan and Iran
22 lumrey khor 2018
Pecheneg: Pecheneg ✧ XPC ✧ A mysterious Turkic language with no known descendents, extinct by 1300
22 veçem 2018
Penan-Nibong: Penan-Nibong ✧ PEZ/PNE ✧ Presumed Austronesian, spoken by 8000 on Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia)
22 laseh teleu 2018
Pennsylvania “Dutch”: Pennsylvania “Dutch” ✧ PDC ✧ A Palatinate German spoken by the Amish, many of whom not named Yoder
22 Marz 2018
Penrhyn (Tongarevan): Penrhyn (Tongarevan) ✧ PNH ✧ Seriously endangered Polynesian language spoken by around 200, Northern Cook Islands
22 māti 2018
Picard (Ch’ti or “Patois”): Picard (Ch’ti or “Patois”) ✧ PCD ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Extreme northern France.
22 mars 2018
Picard [Medieval]: Picard [Medieval] ✧ PCD ✧ As seen on the Astrolabe of Berselius (14th century)
Piedmontese: Piedmontese ✧ PMS ✧ Indo-European, Romance; 3 million speakers in northern Italy. Curiously, Piedmontese lacks ordinal numbers exceeding “sixth” and instead resorts to phrases (“the one that makes seven,” etc.) to express ordinals beyond that.
22 mars 2018
Pingelapese: Pingelapese ✧ PIF ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by < 1000. Micronesia, Pingelap atoll. Offers specific words for every sequential day in a month — shown here in quotes.
22 (“sengek”) kahlek 2018
Pipil (Nawat): Pipil (Nawat) ✧ PPL ✧ Uto-Aztecan language under revival, El Salvador. There are now over 3000 speakers.
22 metzi yey 2018
Pitcairn-Norfolk: Pitcairn-Norfolk ✧ PIH ✧ An endangered Tahitian/English creole spoken on Pitcairn & Norfolk Islands
22 maach 2018
Plautdietsch (Low German): Plautdietsch (Low German) ✧ PDT ✧ North Sea Germanic, akin to Dutch. Spoken in northern Germany, eastern areas of the Netherlands, and by Mennonites worldwide.
22 Moaz or Meert 2018
Poitevin-Saintongeais: Poitevin-Saintongeais ✧  ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Earliest known writings from 1400s.
22 mar 2018
Polabian: Polabian ✧ POX ✧ West Slavic with Germanic influences. Last native speaker died in 1756. The protagonists in the Russian opera-ballet Mlada describe themselves as Polabians.
22 zürmôn 2018
Pomeranian [Kashubian]: Pomeranian [Kashubian] ✧ CSB ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic. Some 100,000 speakers living mostly in Germany & Poland.
22 strëmiannik 2018
Pomeranian [Slovincian]: Pomeranian [Slovincian] ✧ CSB ✧ The other major dialect of Pomeranian, though unfortunately extinct since World War I
22 mărcʉ 2018
Pontic: Pontic ✧ PNT ✧ Indo-European, Hellenic. Spoken in Greece & Turkey.
22 Μάρ’τς (Marts) 2018
Potawatomi: Potawatomi ✧ POT ✧ Algonquian language of the Great Lakes Area (Michigan, Wisconsin, southern Ontario). One of its last native speakers, Cecilia Miksekwe Jackson (d. 2011), worked to document and teach Potawatomi. Revival efforts are currently underway.
22 nmébné-gizes 2018
Proto-Germanic: Proto-Germanic ✧  ✧ Reconstructed ancestor of all Germanic languages, last spoken c. 250 bce
Proto-Slavic: Proto-Slavic ✧  ✧ Reconstructed ancestor of all Slavic languages, 5th to 8th centuries ce
Pukapukan: Pukapukan ✧ PKP ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language from Danger Island (Cook Islands group). Over 4000 speakers.
22 Māti 2018
Pumi [Northern]: Pumi [Northern] ✧ PMI ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman. Spoken by highland ethnic Pumi in Yunnan.
22 sõ35li55mei35 2018
Pumi [Southern]: Pumi [Southern] ✧ PMJ ✧ The other chief dialect of Pumi. The two are not mutually intelligible.
22 sã55uɑ̃55ɬi55 2018
Purépecha (Tarascan): Purépecha (Tarascan) ✧ TSZ ✧ A language isolate of the descendents of the Purépecha civilization, which rivaled that of the Aztecs up until the European conquest. Still spoken natively by 125,000 in the southwestern Mexican state of Michoacán.
22 mariso 2018

Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi): Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi) ✧ KEK ✧ Mayan family, 800,000 speakers in Guatemala and Belize
22 maars 2018
Qiang [Horpa/Ergong]: Qiang [Horpa/Ergong] ✧ ERO ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but non-tonal, 50,000 Sichuan-area speakers. Linguists consider it a “living fossil.”
22 ɦɛ səm pa 2018
Qiang [Máwō]: Qiang [Máwō] ✧ CNG ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but non-tonal, 130,000 speakers in China’s Sichuan
22 khsiʂ 2018
Qiang [Taoping]: Qiang [Taoping] ✧ QXS ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but tonal (unlike Ergong and Máwō above), 80,000 speakers
22 tshi55ʂı33 2018
Quechua [As widely published]: Quechua [As widely published] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechuan family, spoken by Inca Empire descendents. Natively it lacks the vowels E and O.
22 ñiqin pawqar waray killa 2018
Quechua [Huallaga]: Quechua [Huallaga] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechua II dialect spoken in the Huánuco Province in Peru
22 marsu 2018
Quechua [Northern/Ecuadorian]: Quechua [Northern/Ecuadorian] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechua II dialect, called Kitchwa, spoken in Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru
22 pawkar 2018
Quechua [Southern/Cusco]: Quechua [Southern/Cusco] ✧ QUZ ✧ Quechua II dialect spoken in the Peru’s Cusco region
22 pawqarwaray 2018

Rapa Nui (Pascuanese): Rapa Nui (Pascuanese) ✧ RAP ✧ Eastern Polynesian, Easter Island, 2700 native speakers. Major differences from other EP languages. Its native writing system, called Rongorongo, remains undeciphered.
22 vahine 2018
Rennell-Bellona (Rennellese): Rennell-Bellona (Rennellese) ✧ MNV ✧ Relatively obscure Polynesian language, 2000 speakers, Solomon Islands
22 Maose 2018
Rgyalrong [Northwestern]: Rgyalrong [Northwestern] ✧ JYA ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Verbs marked with directional orientation cues. Sichuan.
22 zla wa ksǝm pɐ 2018
Ripuarian: Ripuarian ✧ KSH ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, Central Franconian. Cologne region.
22 Määz 2018
Rohingya: Rohingya ✧ RHG ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian. Heavily persecuted, the Rohingya are toughing it out in Burma.
22 zer 2018
Romani [Balkan Sofia Erli]: Romani [Balkan Sofia Erli] ✧ RMN ✧ Indo-Aryan language spoken by Romani in Bulgaria. There are around 760,000 Balkan Romani speakers as a whole, of which Sofia Erli is a subdivision.
22 marto 2018
Romani [Balkan Ursari]: Romani [Balkan Ursari] ✧ RMN ✧ A Balkan Romani spoken in Moldavia and Romania
22 martija 2018
Romani [Kale Finnish]: Romani [Kale Finnish] ✧ RMF ✧ Indo-Aryan language, by way of Scotland, spoken by the Finnish Romani
22 maasesko čoon 2018
Romani [Kale Iberian](Caló): Romani [Kale Iberian](Caló) ✧ RMQ ✧ Indo-Aryan language spoken by Iberian Peninsula Romani. The characters singing the famous “Anvil Chorus” in Verdi’s opera Il trovatori would have likely represented Caló.
22 quirdalé 2018
Romani [Kale Welsh]: Romani [Kale Welsh] ✧ RMW ✧ Romani variety spoken in Wales until at least 1950, introduced by a group that arrived during the 15th century. The purported last native speaker was Manfri Frederick Wood (d. 1968).
22 bavaľako munþos 2018
Romansh [Grischun]: Romansh [Grischun] ✧ ROH ✧ Indo-European, Rhaeto-Romance. Called Rumantsch Grischun to distinguish it from Puter below.
22 mars 2018
Romansh [Puter]: Romansh [Puter] ✧ ROH ✧ Romansch dialect spoken in the Engadine Valley, Switzerland.
22 marz 2018
Rotokas: Rotokas ✧ ROO ✧ Spoken by ≈ 4000 in Papua New Guinea, famous for its tiny sound inventory
22 vo pevapa kekira 2018
Russian [Premodern]: Russian [Premodern] ✧ RUS ✧ This was Russian before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions.
22 протальник 2018
Rusyn (Ruthene or Ruthenian): Rusyn (Ruthene or Ruthenian) ✧ RUE ✧ East Slavic, about 60,000 current speakers. Andy Warhol and Sandra Dee were of Rusyn extraction.
22 марецъ (maryets) 2018
Rwanda-Rundi: Rwanda-Rundi ✧ KIN/RUN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Tonal, official in Rwanda.
22 Werurwe 2018

Sabaean (Sabaic): Sabaean (Sabaic) ✧ XSA ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Old South Arabian branch, the language of the Queen of Sheba/Saba spoken in Yemen between approximately 1000 bce and the 6th century ce. Some of its descendants (Mehri, Soqotri, etc.) still flourish.
XXII 𐩻𐩥𐩽𐩣𐩲𐩥𐩬 (ðū mʕwn) MMXVIII
Salish [Island Halkomelem]: Salish [Island Halkomelem] ✧ HUR ✧ A Salishan language spoken by about 200 on the east coast of Vancouver Island
22 Wulhxus 2018
Salish [Klallam]: Salish [Klallam] ✧ CLM ✧ Salishan family, spoken in USA’s Pacific Northwest on the northern shore of the Olympic Peninsula.
22 wəx̣əs 2018
Salish [North Straits]: Salish [North Straits] ✧ STR ✧ Salishan family, Vancouver area. Six dialects, nearly extinct.
22 waʔx̱wəx̱ɬcítəŋ̕ 2018
Salish [Puget Sound] (Lushootseed): Salish [Puget Sound] (Lushootseed) ✧ LUT ✧ Another Salishan language, spoken by fewer than 100. The word geoduck (elephant clam) derives from Puget Sound Salish.
22 waq̓waq̓us 2018
Samburu: Samburu ✧ SAQ ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, northern Kenya highlands, 174,000 speakers
22 Lapa le okuni 2018
Sami [Inari]: Sami [Inari] ✧ SMN ✧ Finno-Ugric, 300 speakers, seriously endangered
22 njuhčâmáánu 2018
Sami [Kildin]: Sami [Kildin] ✧ SJD ✧ A Sami spoken by about 600 in the Lovozero area of the Kola Peninsula
22 нюххчманну 2018
Sami [Lule]: Sami [Lule] ✧ SMJ ✧ Spoken by between 1000 and 2000 around the Lule River in Sweden and in Norway’s Nordland County.
22 sjnjuktjamánno 2018
Sami [Northern]: Sami [Northern] ✧ SME ✧ The most widely spoken Sami, ≈ 20,000 speakers
22 njukčamánu 2018
Sami [Skolt]: Sami [Skolt] ✧ SMS ✧ Seriously endangered, 400 speakers mostly around Sevettijärvi, Finland
22 pâ’zzlâšttammannu 2018
Sami [Southern]: Sami [Southern] ✧ SMA ✧ Seriously endangered, 500 speakers in Norway’s Snåsa and Hattfjelldal districts
22 njoktjen 2018
Samlandish (Old Baltic Prussian): Samlandish (Old Baltic Prussian) ✧ PRG ✧ Indo-European, Balto-Slavic (as opposed to Germanic, the other, entirely unrelated “Prussian”). Samlandish’s written form using the Roman alphabet first appeared in the 13th century. Extinct by 1800, in large part because many of its speakers died during a rash of plague epidemics and famines during the period 1709-1711.
22 Pūlis 2018
Samogitian: Samogitian ✧ SGS ✧ Indo-European, Baltic, spoken in western Lithuania. A Lithuanian dialect to some, a separate language to others. Related to Curonian and Latgalian (q.v.).
22 kuovs “crows” 2018
Sango: Sango ✧ SAG ✧ Ubangian-derived creole, 3 tones, central Africa
22 mbängü 2018
Sanskrit: Sanskrit ✧ SAN ✧ Along with Hittite, one of the oldest attested Indo-European languages
२२ mar (tṟtīyamāsa) २०१८
Santali: Santali ✧ SAT ✧ Austroasiatic language spoken in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal
२२ मार्च २०१८
Saramaccan: Saramaccan ✧ SRM ✧ Portuguese/English/Dutch creole + African traits. Suriname.
22 gaánlíba 2018
Sardinian [Olianese]: Sardinian [Olianese] ✧ SRD ✧ Sardinian dialect spoken in Oliena in the province of Nuoro (east-central region)
22 marthu 2018
Sardinian: Sardinian ✧ SRD ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Its earliest known writings date from c. 1080. Sardinian and Italian are not mutually intelligible.
22 màltu or màrtu 2018
Sassarese: Sassarese ✧ SDC ✧ A transitional dialect between Sardinian and Corsican, officially recognized in Sardinia and spoken by 100,000 on the northwest coast. Unlike Italian, the trigraph sch is pronounced like the German ch or the Greek χ.
22 màtzu 2018
Sedang: Sedang ✧ SED ✧ Austroasiatic language native to Laos & Vietnam, 100,000 speakers. Famously huge vowel inventory.
22 khế pái 2018
Seediq [Truku]: Seediq [Truku] ✧ TRV ✧ Formosan, Atayalic. Indigenous language from northern Taiwan.
22 tru idas 2018
Sekani [McLeod]: Sekani [McLeod] ✧ SEK ✧ Athabaskan language spoken by a few dozen in British Columbia. Bitonal.
22 Ahda inza 2018
Selkup: Selkup ✧ SEL ✧ Uralic, Samoyedic. Yamalo-Nenets region in Siberia, 1500 speakers.
22 мáрти´рсе иррет 2018
Serbian [Orthodox]: Serbian [Orthodox] ✧ SRP ✧ Serbian Orthodox Church tradition
22 благовештенски (blagoveštensky) 2018
Serbian [Premodern/Folk]: Serbian [Premodern/Folk] ✧ SRP ✧ Serbian folk tradition, pre-19th century
22 дерикожа (derikoža) 2018
Sercquiais (Sarkese): Sercquiais (Sarkese) ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance. A Norman dialect spoken by about 20 on the Channel Island of Sark.
22 mar 2018
Seri: Seri ✧ SEI ✧ Indigenous language isolate spoken by < 1000 in Mexico. Uses nine definite articles that depend on the relative movement of the object.
22 cayajáacoj 2018
Seychellois Creole: Seychellois Creole ✧ CRS ✧ French-based creole of the Seychelles, around 70,000 speakers
22 mars 2018
Shan: Shan ✧ SHN ✧ Tai-Kadai language, tonal. Spoken in Burma, Thailand, and China
22 mar (lunhuk) 2018
Shawiya Berber: Shawiya Berber ✧ SHY ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, spoken in and around the Awras Mountains of eastern Algeria. Preliterate until recently.
22 mars 2018
Sherpa: Sherpa ✧ XSR ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken by 150,000 in Nepal, Tibet, and Kashmir.
22 dāwā sumbā 2018
Shona: Shona ✧ SNA ✧ Bantu language spoken by over 8 million, official in Zimbabwe
22 Kurume 2018
Shor: Shor ✧ CJS ✧ Turkic, 10,000 speakers in Siberia’s Kemerovo Province. Mongolian and Russian loans.
22 keeryuk au 2018
Sicilian: Sicilian ✧ SCN ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Arabic and Greek influences with pre-Indo-European roots. Unlike Italian, Sicilian tends to avoid the vowels E and O.
22 màrzu 2018
Silesian: Silesian ✧ SZL ✧ West Slavic, spoken in Poland and the Czech Republic. Some authorities consider it a dialect of Polish, others don't. In any case about a dozen dialects of Silesian are cited, one of which is unique to Panna Maria, Texas.
22 mařec 2018
Slovene [Premodern, Prekmurian]: Slovene [Premodern, Prekmurian] ✧ SLV ✧ A Slovene dialect spoken in northeastern Slovenia and western Hungary
22 mali tráven 2018
Slovene [Premodern, Standard]: Slovene [Premodern, Standard] ✧ SLV ✧ Indo-European, South Slavic, standardized from various dialects during the 18th century. Unusually for a Slavic language it offers three numbers — singular, dual, and plural. Not to be confused with Slovak, which is WEST Slavic and close to Czech (q.v.).
22 sušec 2018
Somali: Somali ✧ SOM ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Cushitic. Employs vowel harmony and three tones.
22 bisha saddexaad 2018
Sorbian (Lusatian) [Lower]: Sorbian (Lusatian) [Lower] ✧ WEN ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 10,000 in lower Saxony (Brandenburg)
22 pózymski 2018
Sorbian (Lusatian) [Upper]: Sorbian (Lusatian) [Upper] ✧ WEN ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 40,000 in upper Saxony
22 nalĕtnik 2018
Sotho [Northern] (Pedi): Sotho [Northern] (Pedi) ✧ SOT ✧ Another dialect of Sotho, South Africa.
22 Mopitlo 2018
Sotho: Sotho ✧ SOT ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Uses clicks, ejectives, and uvular trill.
22 Hlakubele 2018
Southern Min (Minnan): Southern Min (Minnan) ✧ NAN ✧ Sino-Tibetan, spoken in China’s Fujian province
22 saⁿ-goe̍h 2018
Standard Moroccan Berber (Tamazight): Standard Moroccan Berber (Tamazight) ✧ ZGH ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber
22 ⵎⴰⵕⵚ 2018
Sudovian (Yotvingian): Sudovian (Yotvingian) ✧ XSV ✧ Indo-European, Baltic, unfortunately extinct by 1600. It was mutually intelligible with Old Baltic Prussian (q.v.).
22 kovas or martis 2018
Svan: Svan ✧ SVA ✧ Kartvelian family (Like Georgian, Mingrelian, and Laz), spoken in the Svaneti region of Georgia by around 30,000, who call it lushnu nin. It has no written standard.
კბ მა̈რტ (märtI) ციჱ
Swazi: Swazi ✧ SSW ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Swaziland (official), Lesotho, Mozambique, and South Africa.
22 iNdlovu 2018
Swedish [Traditional]: Swedish [Traditional] ✧ SWE ✧ North Germanic, descended from Old Norse. This is the premodern terminology.
22 vårmånad 2018
Syriac Aramaic: Syriac Aramaic ✧ SYC ✧ Northwest Semitic, spoken by Syrian Christians in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. Its alphabet shares its ancestry with the Arabic and maps to it almost one-to-one; the style shown here is called Serṭā.
22 mar ādār 2018

Tabasaran: Tabasaran ✧ TAB ✧ Northeast Caucasian language notable for its vast noun case inventory. Natively it lacks the vowel O.
22 курш 2018
Tacana: Tacana ✧ TNA ✧ Western Tacanan family, 1800 speakers along the Beni & Madre de Dios rivers in Bolivia
22 badhi kimisha 2018
Tachelhit (Shilha or Sussian): Tachelhit (Shilha or Sussian) ✧ SHI ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, southern Morocco. Writings date from 16th century ce.
22 mar (mars) 2018
Taki Taki (Sranan Tongo): Taki Taki (Sranan Tongo) ✧ SRN ✧ An English/Dutch/Portuguese/West African Creole spoken in Suriname
22 maart 2018
Tamil: Tamil ✧ TAM ✧ Dravidian family, India. Split off from Malayalam 9th century ce.
௰௰௨ மார்ச் (mārč) ௲௲௰௮
Tanacross: Tanacross ✧ TCB ✧ Athabaskan language with about 30 speakers (middle Tanana River, Alaska)
22 ch’esẖǎan’ s̱ǎa’ 2018
Tarantino: Tarantino ✧ NAP ✧ A dialect of Neapolitan with Messapic roots, spoken by 300,000 on the heel of Italy
22 màrze 2018
Tatar [Kazan]: Tatar [Kazan] ✧ TAT ✧ Turkic, spoken in Tatarstan. Has used Arabic, Roman, & Cyrillic alphabets.
22 mart 2018
Telugu: Telugu ✧ TEL ✧ Dravidian family, Andhra Pradesh, India. Oldest text, 575 ce.
౨౨ మార్చి ౨౦౧౮
Temne: Temne ✧ TEM ✧ Bantu language spoken in Sierra Leone, tonal
22 Gbáproṅ 2018
Teso (Ateso): Teso (Ateso) ✧ TEO ✧ Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Kenya, Uganda
22 Okwamg’ 2018
Tetum (Tetun): Tetum (Tetun) ✧ TET ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language with Portuguese influences, East Timor.
22 marsu 2018
Thai: Thai ✧ THA ✧ Now assigned to the Tai-Kadai family, previously considered Sino-Tibetan. Five speech registers: Street, Formal, Rhetorical, Religious, Royal.
๒๒ มีนาคม (miinakhom) ๒๐๑๘
Tibetan [Dégé]: Tibetan [Dégé] ✧ BOD ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Three speech registers: informal, polite/respectful, religious.
༢༢ da13wa53suŋ55ba53 ༢༠༡༨
Tigrinya: Tigrinya ✧ TIR ✧ Afro-Asiatic, South Semitic. Ethiopia & Eritrea.
22 mar (megabit) 2018
Tlingit: Tlingit ✧ TLI ✧ Na-Dené family, USA Pacific northwest, nearly extinct
22 Héentáanáx Kayaan’i Dís 2018
Tofalar (Karagas): Tofalar (Karagas) ✧ KIM ✧ A moribund Turkic language related to Tuvan (q.v.). About 90 speakers in the Irkutsk region.
22 тоорбаш ай 2018
Tokelauan [Traditional]: Tokelauan [Traditional] ✧ TKL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, about 4300 speakers in American Samoa (on Tokelau and Swains Island) and New Zealand. Tokelauan and Tuvaluan are mutually intelligible.
22 Takaoga 2018
Tongan: Tongan ✧ TON ✧ Malayo-Polynesian. Only one vowel per syllable, no blended consonants.
22 Ma’asi 2018
Tsimshian [Coast]: Tsimshian [Coast] ✧ TSI ✧ Indigenous language spoken by around 240 in British Columbia and Alaska. Possibly an isolate.
22 Ha’lila᾿x six’ẅa᾿h “Time for first harvest” 2018
Tsonga: Tsonga ✧ TSO ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu. Uses whistling sounds and a single click.
22 Nyenyankulu 2018
Tswana: Tswana ✧ TSN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 4 million speakers in southern Africa
22 Mopitlwe 2018
Tuareg [Tamasheq]: Tuareg [Tamasheq] ✧ TAQ ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber. Complex “avoidance” behavior in communication.
22 mar (mars) 2018
Tumbuka: Tumbuka ✧ TUM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Speakers in Malawi, Zambia, & Tanzania.
22 Marichi 2018
Turkish [Meskhetian]: Turkish [Meskhetian] ✧ TUR ✧ Dialect spoken by Meskheti disapora throughout Russia
22 mart 2018
Turkish [Ottoman]: Turkish [Ottoman] ✧ TUR ✧ Turkish of the Ottoman Empire before 20th century reforms
22 март 2018
Turkish [Standard]: Turkish [Standard] ✧ TUR ✧ Altaic family, earliest Old Turkic inscriptions found in Mongolia
22 kuzu ayı or dol tökümü 2018
Turkmen 1 [Pre-Niyazov]: Turkmen 1 [Pre-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ Altaic family, Turkic. 9 million speakers.
22 mart 2018
Turkmen 2 [Post-Niyazov]: Turkmen 2 [Post-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ As decreed by dictator Saparmurat Niyazov (1940-2006)
22 Nowruz 2018
Turkmen 3 [Post-Post-Niyazov]: Turkmen 3 [Post-Post-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ Back by popular demand!
22 mart 2018
Tuvan: Tuvan ✧ TYV ✧ Turkic language with Mongolian loans, spoken in Tuva
22 үш ай (üš ay) 2018
Tyap (Katab): Tyap (Katab) ✧ KCG ✧ Niger-Congo, West Plateau. 200,000 speakers, Nigeria.
22 Zwat Tsat 2018
Tzotzil: Tzotzil ✧ TZO ✧ Mayan family, Cholan-Tzeltalan branch, spoken by 400,000 in Chiapas, Mexico
22 marso 2018

Uab Meto: Uab Meto ✧ AOZ ✧ Malayo-Polynesian family, unusual gender distinctions, Indonesian West Timor
22 fun-tenu’ 2018
Ubykh: Ubykh ✧ UBY ✧ Extinct Northwest Caucasian language notable for its staggering consonant inventory and richness in idioms. Its last native speaker was Circassian exile Tevfik Esen¸ (1904-1992).
22 psəbəʁʷ 2018
Udmurt (Votyak): Udmurt (Votyak) ✧ UDM ✧ Uralic family, related to Komi (q.v.). 500,000 speakers in the central Urals.
22 южтолэзь 2018
Ukrainian: Ukrainian ✧ UKR ✧ Indo-European, East Slavic, Polish affinities
22 березнь (berezen) “birch-burning” 2018
Ulwa: Ulwa ✧ ULW ✧ Misumalpan family, Sumo group. About 400 speakers in eastern Nicaragua.
22 kahma waikaku 2018
Unami [Lenape]: Unami [Lenape] ✧ UNM ✧ Nominally extinct Algonquian language of the New Jersey area Lenape people
22 shëwanamèkwi kishux 2018
Upland Yuman: Upland Yuman ✧ YUF ✧ Aboriginal language spoken by < 450 in Arizona’s Grand Canyon
22 Mu thaw gyo 2018
Upper Kuskokwim: Upper Kuskokwim ✧ KUU ✧ Athabaskan, only 40 speakers (Alaska). Features a voiceless N sound.
22 ch’itsozroṉ 2018
Upper Tanana [Tetlin]: Upper Tanana [Tetlin] ✧ TAU ✧ Athabaskan, related to Tanacross (q.v.), fewer than 100 speakers. Tetlin, Alaska.
22 Ch’ishyaann’ Saa 2018
Uyghur: Uyghur ✧ UIG ✧ Turkic, loans from Persian, Russian, Chinese. Spoken in China’s Xinjiang region.
22 üchinchi ay 2018

Võro [Seto]: Võro [Seto] ✧ VRO ✧ Võro/Estonian dialect spoken by 12,500 in Setomaa (Estonia/Russia). Germanic influences.
22 märts or paastikuu 2018
Võro: Võro ✧ VRO ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to Veps (q.v.), seriously endangered
22 urbõkuu 2018
Vai: Vai ✧ VAI ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande. Tonal, 75,000 speakers, Liberia.
22 mar (vɔɔ) 2018
Venda: Venda ✧ VEN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu branch. 800,000 speakers in southern Africa
22 t̥hafamuhwe 2018
Venetian: Venetian ✧ VEC ✧ Veneto region. Has un-Italian sounds ç (like Greek θ) and, as also in Polish, ł (like English w).
22 marso 2018
Veps: Veps ✧ VEP ✧ Finno-Ugric, ≈ 6300 speakers mostly near the Gulf of Finland
22 kevä 2018
Vietnamese (Annamese): Vietnamese (Annamese) ✧ VIE ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, at one time written with Chinese-derived script called Chữ nôm
22 tháng ba 2018
Vosgien [La Bresse]: Vosgien [La Bresse] ✧  ✧ Romance, Langue d’Oïl, Vosges Department, France. Extinct.
22 mars 2018
Vosgien [La Haye]: Vosgien [La Haye] ✧  ✧ Another Vosgien dialect
22 mars 2018
Vosgien [Ville sur Illon]: Vosgien [Ville sur Illon] ✧  ✧ And yet another
22 mars 2018
Votic (Votian or Vote): Votic (Votian or Vote) ✧ VOT ✧ Finno-Ugric, < 20 speakers in two villiages near Narva, Estonia
22 martti 2018

Wallisian (East Uvean): Wallisian (East Uvean) ✧ WLS ✧ Polynesian, spoken by around 10,000 on Wallis Island of Wallis and Futuna. Related to Rennellese and Tongan (q.v.).
22 malesio 2018
Walloon: Walloon ✧ WLN ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Dates back to 1200s.
22 måss 2018
Walser: Walser ✧ WAE ✧ Germanic, uppermost Swiss alps. Its CH is very roughly articulated.
22 Märze 2018
Waray-Waray [premodern]: Waray-Waray [premodern] ✧ WAR ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, Central Visayan. Philippines.
22 mar (karayapanhon) 2018
Welsh (Cymric): Welsh (Cymric) ✧ CYM ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Many speakers not named Jones.
22 Mawrth 2018
Winnebago (Ho-Chunk): Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) ✧ WIN ✧ Siouan family, native to an area stretching from the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan to east central Minnesota. As in some European languages like Polish and Lithuanian, nasalized vowels are contrastive and marked with ogoneks (a/ą, i/į, u/ų).
22 Wake hiliruxe wiira 2018
Wolof: Wolof ✧ WOL ✧ Niger-Congo language. Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania. The terms “okay” and “hep cat” may possibly have come from Wolof.
22 gamou 2018
Wymysorys (Wilamowicean): Wymysorys (Wilamowicean) ✧ WYM ✧ Germanic language, approx. 70 speakers in the area of Wilamowice, Poland
22 mjēca 2018

Xhosa: Xhosa ✧ XHO ✧ Niger-Congo, many unusual consonants including 15 clicks
22 uKwindla 2018
Xincan [Jutiapa]: Xincan [Jutiapa] ✧ XIN ✧ From a family of moribund/extinct language isolates, spoken by a handfull in Guatamala though no longer fluently. Lots of Mayan loans.
22 wala ʔawa 2018

Yakut (Sakha): Yakut (Sakha) ✧ SAH ✧ Northern Turkic, grammatically genderless, spoken in northern Siberia
22 кулун тутар (kooloon tootar) 2018
Yanesha’ (Amuesha): Yanesha’ (Amuesha) ✧ AME ✧ Arawakan family. Spoken by about 7000 Yanesha’ in the Peruvian Amazon.
22 chochem̃ 2018
Yangben (Central Yambasa): Yangben (Central Yambasa) ✧ YAV ✧ Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid, spoken by 17,000 in Cameroon
22 ɔnsúmbɔl or oóli ú kátátúɛ 2018
Yi (Nuosu): Yi (Nuosu) ✧ III ✧ Tibeto-Burman language spoken by ethnic Yi in China and southeast Asia
22 mar (suoma) 2018
Yiddish (Judaeo-German): Yiddish (Judaeo-German) ✧ YID ✧ Arose from Old High German (q.v.) during the ninth century. It uses Hebrew script adapted to indicate vowels explicitly. There are currently about 3 million speakers worldwide.
22 מערץ (merts) 2018
Yine: Yine ✧ PIB ✧ Arawakan family. 4000 speakers in the Peruvian Urubamba River Valley.
22 marzo ksuru or ganikajginapu 2018
Yoruba: Yoruba ✧ YOR ✧ Niger-Congo family, spoken in Nigeria and Benin. Heavy Arabic influences.
22 Oṣù Ẹrẹ̀nà 2018
Yuchi: Yuchi ✧ YUC ✧ Native American language of unknown ancestry, virtually extinct, Oklahoma
22 Wadasine 2018
Yukaghir [Tundra]: Yukaghir [Tundra] ✧ YKG ✧ A moribund two-language family, spoken by a few dozen in the Russian Far East
22 pugud’eme niŋin χačil 2018
Yupi’k [Mid-Alaskan]: Yupi’k [Mid-Alaskan] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, ≈ 13,000 speakers
22 Kepnerciq 2018
Yupik [Pacific Gulf]: Yupik [Pacific Gulf] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, 2 dialects, ≈ 500-1000 speakers
22 Kaignasqaq Iraluq 2018
Yupik [St Lawrence]: Yupik [St Lawrence] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, Bering Strait area, < 300 speakers
22 Teghiglugsiq 2018

Zarma (Dyerma): Zarma (Dyerma) ✧ DJE ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Songhay group. Spoken in southwest Niger.
22 gani 2018
Zaza (Zazaki or Zazaish): Zaza (Zazaki or Zazaish) ✧ ZZA ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian. 2,000,000 speakers, mostly in Turkey.
22 adare 2018
Zhuang: Zhuang ✧ ZHA ✧ Tai-Kadai family, 6 tones, spoken in China’s Guangxi region
22 nin sam 2018
Zulu: Zulu ✧ ZUL ✧ Bantu language widely spoken in southern Africa
22 uNdasa 2018
Zuni: Zuni ✧ ZUN ✧ An isolate spoken by 9500 in New Mexico. There may be a 13th-century Japanese connection.
22 li’dekwakkya ts’ana 2018

Illustration: The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, mid-15th century French Gothic illuminations produced in the Low Countries. Months captioned in two common vernaculars of that time and place, Medieval Picard and Old Dutch.

Special thanks:

Can Dai Quang (Cham)
Ansuharijaz (Frankish and Proto-Germanic reconstructions)
Apay Tang (Truku dialect of Seediq)
Eliza Jones, James Kari, Mildred Buck, plus others of the Alaska Native Language Center
Qinglian Zhao (Naxi)
Lin Ying-Chin (Pumi, Qiang and Rgyalrong)
Le Projet Babel (Vosgien)
Michael Krauss and Marie Smith Jones (Eyak)
Suzanne Weryackwe of Arizona State University (Havasupai-Hualapai)
… and literally hundreds of other sources


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