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Friday 12 August 2022
Lilian day 2176950.5399

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After a good eight months of research, design, and coding, often over 14-hour days, “The Twelve Months of the Year in 850 Languages and Dialects (Mostly Ones You’ve Probably Never Heard Of)” has a fresh, new database. I’ve added many novel entries, hunted up thousands of translations and etymologies, brought in a whopping 70 foreign fonts, beefed up the profiles, and generously replenished its supplementary articles. Correspondingly, here’s my updated “Today’s date” page.


The entries still total 850, though. The newcomers displaced others whose sources weren’t up to snuff or who just didn’t seem to have as much to say. You can view the first 16 words of each language’s story below by rolling your cursor over its nameLanguage profile. Where you see a green lotus blossom () on those sections, rolling over the month termsTranslation, etymology, or characterization will reveal their characterizations. 1 They tell us a great deal about what is or was important to their underlying cultures.

j. JENUIER / LOUWMAAND
ij. FREUIER / SPROKKELMAAND
iij. MARCH / LENTEMAAND
iiij. AURIL / GRASMAAND
v. MAY / BLOEIMAAND
vj. JUING / ZOMERMAAND
vij. JUILLET / HOOIMAAND
viij. AUOUST / OOGSTMAAND
ix. SEPTĒBRE / HERFSTMAAND
x. OCTĒBRE / WIJNMAAND
xj. NOUĒBRE / SLACHTMAAND
xij. DECĒBRE / WINTERMAAND
<span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>j. JENUIER / LOUWMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ij. FREUIER / SPROKKELMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iij. MARCH / LENTEMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iiij. AURIL / GRASMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>v. MAY / BLOEIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vj. JUING / ZOMERMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vij. JUILLET / HOOIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>viij. AUOUST / OOGSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ix. SEPTĒBRE / HERFSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>x. OCTĒBRE / WIJNMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xj. NOUĒBRE / SLACHTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xij. DECĒBRE / WINTERMAAND</aside></i></span>

The book itself has an article in the back, Lingo Factinos I, showing samples of abjads, alphabets, abugidas, syllabaries, and logograms and outlining how they all work. Lingo Factinos II covers some ancient civilizations you don’t often hear about — in some cases, likely never — and how a weird-sounding alphabet connected to the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World recently got deciphered. You’ll also find out what traces some Japanese explorers might have left behind in the Americas, a good century and a half before Columbus.

Even the Appendix tells a few stories. But as they say (or not), a movie is not a book and a book is not a website. Once we find a less expensive way to produce that eight-by-ten, 88,000-word juggernaut physically — print-on-demand is a killer — I’ll let you know.

Then you’ll get to discover, say, what European language standard introduced in 1982 was pooh-poohed as a “test-tube baby” by its opponents. And where January is called uilal-bailiur, “when pigs go raiding gardens.” And on what month, at Malekula Island in Vanuatu, you’d better get ready to pass muster with your local Yam Master.


Now in case you haven’t been here for a while, heading terms below in parentheses ( ) are alternate names for a language, while those in brackets [ ] specify a particular subdivision or dialect. Curly braces { } narrow things down in cases where there are other languages with the same name. The video screen icon links (  ) visible on 394 of these entries will let you hear how they actually sound. 2 Here’s Abkhazian, for example, where you get to hear Rapunzel deftly negotiate 65 consonant sounds as she sings Yanbalagwa sa siphsthazaara? (When Will My Life Begin?).

Round215a-pic5
Round215a-pic4
Round215a-pic3
Round215a-pic1
Round215a-pic2

Some of these languages are over 1500 years old. Regardless, they more or less followed along with the Julian calendar 3 to do as the Romans did. Examples include Etruscan, Tocharian B, Gaulish, and Pahlavi (Middle Persian). You’ll also see the Palmyrene of Queen Zenobia, who helped herself to several eastern Mediterranean provinces in the late third century when the Romans weren’t looking.

Other entries move further into the medieval. Thirteenth century Yiddish is something you don’t see every day, any more than Gothic (flourished 3rd to 10th century), medieval Georgian (shown in its archaic Asomtavruli script), 14th century Picard (with, in the book, a quote by Da Vinci-like artist Villard de Honnecourt), Pecheneg (mysterious, poorly attested, gone by 1300), Old Udi (⁠gleaned but recently through x-ray scans), or Tangut (notorious for its byzantine, quasi-Chinese writing system).

Years shown are Gregorian. For organizational clarity and consistency, the chart displays each entry in the continental order of day, month, and year even where accompanying scripts read right-to-left.


1. Terms that just simulate their Neo-Latin equivalents, or operate as ordinals — “first month,” “second month,” etc. — don’t need explaining.

2. Some of these don’t necessarily match the dialects, but should give you a pretty good idea. If you happen across a good quality video I can link to for one or more of these languages yourself, do email it to me using “webmaster” at this domain or through the “Contact me” link below.

3. Virtually identical to our modern 12-month Gregorian, but with a less accurate leap year system.



In
Abaza (ABQ) it’s 1. Northwest Caucasian, 48,000 speakers in Russia and Middle East diaspora communities. Natively it uses 63 consonants...
12­
август [avgust]
x2022
In
Abenaki [Western] (ABE) it’s 2. Algonquian family. As of 1991, spoken natively by fewer than 20 in Odanak, Quebec, and others...
12­ x2022
In
Abkhazian (Abkhaz) (ABK) it’s 3. Northwest Caucasian, akin to Abaza, with around 100,000 speakers in Georgia's contested Abkhazia region. Its dialects...
იბ­ xცკბ  
In
Abui (ABZ) it’s 4. Trans-New Guinea family, spoken by 17,000 on Alor Island in eastern Indonesia, just north of East...
12­ x2022  
In
Acehnese (ACE) it’s 5. Malayo-Polynesian, Chamic, 3.5 million speakers in Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It traditionally used a Jawi Arabic...
١٢­
بوليون لاڤن / Buleuën Lapan
x٢٠٢٢
In
Achuar-Shiwiar [Achuar Chicham] (ACU) it’s 6. From the tiny Aénts Chicham (formerly Jivaroan) family, spoken by around 7000 in Peru and Ecuador...
12­ x2022
In
Achuar-Shiwiar [Shiwiar Chicham] (ACU) it’s 7. T⁠he other dialect of Achuar-Shiwiar, spoken in ten communities. Since both Achuar and Shiwiar con­sider the...
12­ x2022  
In
Adele (Gidire) (ADE) it’s 8. Niger-Congo family, Kwa, geographically of the Ghana Togo Mountain languages, 37,000 speakers in Ghana and Togo...
12­ x2022
In
Afar (Qafár Af) (AAR) it’s 9. Afroasiatic, Cushitic. Spoken in Djibouti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia by 1.5 million. Ethiopic and modified Arabic scripts...
١٢­
لِيقہ﮴ن / Liiqen
x٢٠٢٢
In
Aghem (Wum) (AGQ) it’s 10. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, Grassfields, 27,000 speakers (and increasing) in northwest Cameroon, informally taught in schools. Aghem...
12­
ndzɔ̱ŋɔ̱kwîfɔ̱e
x2022
In
Aghul (Agul) (AGX) it’s 11. Northeast Caucasian, 30,000 speakers mostly in southern Dagestan. T⁠he strength with which certain consonants are articulated...
12­ x2022  
In
Aguaruna (AGR) it’s 12. Aénts Chicham family, 38,000 speakers in Peru along the Marañón, Potro, Mayo, and Cahuapanas rivers. Aguaruna’s...
12­
yagkujutin
x2022
In
Ahom (AHO) it’s 13. Kra–Dai family, language of the Ahom Kingdom of India’s Brahmaputra River Valley, presumed extinct by 1899...
𑜱𑜲­
𑜓𑜢𑜃𑜫 𑜆𑜢𑜄𑜫  [din pit]
x𑜲𑜰𑜲𑜲
In
Ahtna [Central] (AHT) it’s 14. Na-Dené, Athabaskan, around 80 speakers for all dialects combined, from Alaska’s Copper River. Incorporates about 100...
12­ x2022
In
Ainu (AIN) it’s 15. Aboriginal language of the Japanese archipelago, ancestry unknown, nearly extinct natively. As shown here, C is...
12
x2022
In
Aja {Benin-Togo} (AJG) it’s 16. Niger-Congo, Gbe, spoken by half a million Aja in Benin and Togo. Closely related to Ewe...
12­
vuvɔ
x2022
In
Aka (Hruso) (HRU) it’s 17. Believed to be an isolate albeit with Sino-Tibetan features, 3000 speakers in 21 scattered and isolated...
१२­
dosa / दोस
x२०२२
In
Akan (Twi) (AKA) it’s 18. Niger-Congo Language native to Ghana and Ivory Coast, also brought to South America by slaves. Ghanaian-born...
­
Difuu-Ɔsandaa
x
In
Akha [Puli/Standard] (AHK) it’s 19. Sino-Tibetan, Loloish, 600,000 speakers in Burma's Shan State, northern Laos, and northern T⁠hailand. Five level tones...
၁၂ x၂၂
In
Alabama (Alibamu) (AKZ) it’s 20. A member of the Muskogean family, akin to Chickasaw and Choctaw (qq.v.), spoken in Texas natively...
12­
hasiholtina istontótchìina
x2022
In
Albanian [Gheg ] (SQI) it’s 21. Of an Indo-European language with its very own branch, the larger of its two chief dialects...
12­
gusht / گُشْتْ
x2022
In
Albanian [Premodern] (SQI) it’s 22. Traditional Albanian terminology, more colorful but now largely forgotten. Albanian verb forms express mirativity, the speaker's...
12­ x2022
In
Aleut [Atkan] (ALE) it’s 23. Eskimo-Aleut family, Aleut branch, native to the Alaskan Peninsula and the Aleutian, Commander, and Pribilof Islands...
12­ x2022  
In
Algonquin (ALQ) it’s 24. Algonquian family, closely related to (but divergent from) Ojibwe (q.v.), 1800 speakers in Quebec and Ontario...
12­ x2022
In
Altai (Gorno-Altai) (ATV) it’s 25. Turkic, Altai branch, around 50,000 speakers in Russia's Altai Republic where it’s official, converted from...
12­ x2022  
In
Aluku (???) it’s 26. A creole combining English, Dutch, African languages, and French that arose among escaped African slaves in...
12­
ayti mun fu baka yali
x2022
In
Alutiiq [Kodiak] (EMS) it’s 27. An Eskimo-Aleut language, indigenous to the Alaska and Kenai Peninsulas and Kodiak Island, with around 200...
12­ x2022  
In
Amharic (AMH) it’s 28. Afroasiatic, Semitic, 22 million, Ethiopia. “Good morning!” in Amharic is Inidemini aderachihu! with the -mini ending...
፲፪­
ነሐሴ [nähase]
x፳፳፪
In
Amis (AMI) it’s 29. Austronesian, East Formosan, spoken by an unknown number (out of a native population of 200,000) along...
12­
miheca falo
x2022
In
Anejom (Aneityum) (ATY) it’s 30. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, spoken by several hundred people on Aneityum/Anatom, Vanuatu's southernmost island. Vowel and consonant...
12­ x2022
In
Angami (Tenyidie) (NJM) it’s 31. Sino-Tibetan family, Angami-Pochuri, eight dialects, 130,000 speakers in India's Nagaland, listed as vul­ner­able by the United...
12­
Chi rê o krö
x2022
In
Anii (Basila) (BLO) it’s 32. A Niger-Congo language spoken by 49,000 in Benin and Togo. Tonal, and like many Turkic and...
12­
ɭ jikǝuka kaŋɔrɔ
x2022
In
Ao Naga [Chungli] (NJO) it’s 33. Sino-Tibetan, Ao grouping, 130,000 speakers in Nagaland, North­east India. Chungli is considered the prestige dialect. T⁠he...
12­ x2022
In
Apache [Jicarilla] (APJ) it’s 34. Athabaskan family, New Mexico, about 500 speakers, tonal. Unusually rich sound inventory of 34 con­so­nants and...
12­
Awóoshdo
x2022
In
Apache [Western] (APW) it’s 35. Athabaskan family, SE Arizona, 14,000 native speakers. Western Apache’s grammar calls on its speakers to indicate...
12­ x2022  
In
Apatani (Tani) (APT) it’s 36. Sino-Tibetan family, Western Tani, preliterate until recently, 45,000 native speakers in India's Arunachal Pradesh. Tonal, both...
12­ x2022  
In
Arabic [Levantine] (APC) it’s 37. Afroasiatic family, Semitic. Descended from Ancient North Arabian. Arabic loans into English and other European languages...
١٢­ x٢٠٢٢  
In
Arabic [Libyan] (AYL) it’s 38. An alternative terminology established under Muammar Gaddafi, used between 1969 and 2011. Aside from that, Libyan...
۱۲­ x۲۰۲۲  
In
Arabic [Moroccan] (Darija) (ARY) it’s 39. From the Maghrebi subgroup of Arabic, heavily influenced by Berber languages, French and Spanish. About two-thirds...
۱۲­
شهر تمنية  [šeher tmenya]
x۲۰۲۲
In
Aragonese (Fabla) (ARG) it’s 40. Indo-European, Romance. Spoken by 25,500 in northern Aragon, endangered. Aside from some vocab­ulary, quite understandable to...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Arapaho (ARP) it’s 41. Algonquian, Arapahoan branch, natively spoken by 1000, mostly living on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming...
12­ x2022  
In
Armenian [Premodern] (HYE) it’s 42. Armenian occupies its own branch of Indo-European. Grammatically genderless, even pronouns (“he” and “she” are both...
ԺԲ­ xՍԻԲ  
In
Aromanian (Vlach or Žejan) (RUP) it’s 43. A non-standardized Romance language spoken by a quarter million throughout the Balkans, Greece, and Turkey. Aromanian...
12­
angušt
x2022
In
Arosi (AIA) it’s 44. Malayo-Polynesian, Solomonic, spoken by 6800 on Makira (San Cristobal) Island, east of Guadalcanal in the Solomons...
12­ x2022
In
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Lyonnais Bressan] (FRP) it’s 45. Arpitan is a group of Gallo-Romance languages heard in parts of France, western Switzerland, and north­western...
12­
eu
x2022
In
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Savoyard] (FRP) it’s 46. An Arpitan dialect spoken by 35,000 around the historical Duchy of Savoy in western France and...
12­
out
x2022
In
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Stéphenois] (FRP) it’s 47. Locally called Parlâ Gaga, the Arpitan heard around Saint-Étienne in eastern central France, birthplace of composer...
12­
oût
x2022
In
Asháninka (CNI) it’s 48. Arawakan family, 35,000 speakers in heavily forested areas of Satipo Province in Perú and Acre in...
12­ x2022
In
Assiniboine 1 (Nakoda) (ASB) it’s 49 a. A Siouan language spoken by 150 or so in the northern US/Canadian Plains. Like Dalecarlian (q.v.)...
12­ x2022
In
Assiniboine 2 (Nakoda) (ASB) it’s 49 b. Alternative terminology. Ą́ba wašté né wópina wak’ú no! (“For this beautiful day, I give thanks!”)
12­ x2022
In
Asturian (AST) it’s 50. Indo-European, Romance, northern Spain (Oviedo/Gijón area), 350,000 native speakers. Its pre-Latin substrate shows Celtic elements along...
12­
agostu
x2022
In
Atayal (TAY) it’s 51. Austronesian family, Formosan, Atayalic, indigenous language of northern Taiwan, 84,000 speakers. Male and female speech use...
12­
tay mspat byacing
x2022
In
Atikamekw (ATJ) it’s 52. Algonquian family, Cree complex, 5500 speakers in southwestern Quebec. Unlike many New World indigenous languages, Atikamekw...
12­ x2022
In
Atong {India/Bangladesh} (AOT) it’s 53. Unlike many Sino-Tibetan languages, this one is non-tonal. Spoken by 10,000 in Northeast India and adjacent...
12­ x2022
In
Atsugewi (ATW) it’s 54. T⁠his [possibly] Hokan, Shasta–Palaihnihan language of California went extinct with the death of Medie Webster in...
12­ x2022
In
Austro-Bavarian (BAR) it’s 55. Akin to High German but highly divergent from it, using more Latin. Rural Austria, Bavaria, and...
12­
August
x2022
In
Avar [Folk] (AVA) it’s 56. Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Dagestan and Azerbaijan. It uses either Cyrillic or Arabic script and...
١٢­
къубухIилъ /  قۇبۇحێڸ  [q’ubuẖiɬ]
x٢٠٢٢
In
Awa Pit (Cuaiquer) (KWI) it’s 57. Barbacoan family, seriously endangered, spoken by 13,000 on the Pacific slopes of the Andes in Colombia...
12­
akua
x2022
In
Aymara (AYM) it’s 58. South American indigenous language from the Aymaran family with only two members, the other being Jaqaru...
12­ x2022  



In
Bafia (KSF) it’s 59. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by 60,000 in southwestern Cameroon. Mostly oral, but efforts at estab­lish­ing a written...
12­
ŋwíí akǝ táaraa
x2022
In
Bagirmi (BMI) it’s 60. Nilo-Saharan family, approx. 45,000 speakers in Chad and Nigeria. T⁠his was the language of the Sultanate...
12­
Nap marta
x2022
In
Bagvalal (Bagulal) (KVA) it’s 61. Northeast Caucasian, seriously endangered, 1500 speakers in Dagestan's Tsumadinsky District. Features ejectives and nasalized vowels...
12­
а́вгустбос̄ӏ [ávgustboss̓]
x2022
In
Bahasa Banjar (BJN) it’s 62. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by the Banjarese of South Kalimantan in Indonesia. To ask if someone speaks Banjar:...
12­
Agustus
x2022
In
Bakweri (Kpwe or Mokpwe) (BGM) it’s 63. Niger-Congo, Bantu Zone A, 25,000 speakers living in villages along the slopes of Mt Fako in...
12­ x2022
In
Balochi (Baluchi) (BAL) it’s 64. Indo-Iranic language related to Kurdish (q.v.), 7. 6 million speakers. Unusually for Iranic, it’s genderless and uses...
۱۲­
ساچان / saachaan
x۲۰۲۲
In
Bambara (BAM) it’s 65. Niger-Congo, Mande, Manding, spoken by 15 million in Mali. Bitonal, many French loans, mutually intelligible...
߁߂­
ߎߕߌ ߞߊߟߐ / uti kalo
x߂߀߂߂
In
Bamum (Shümom) (BAX) it’s 66. Niger-Congo, Eastern Grassfields, with a bit over 400,000 speakers in Cameroon and Nigeria. Its native 80-character...
ꛦꛧ
/ Ngùeshe
xꛧꛯꛧꛧ
In
Bariai [Premodern] (BCH) it’s 67. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Ngero group, vigorously maintained, first described by outsiders in 1912. Virtually all 1400 speakers...
12­
paur ainge
x2022
In
Basaa (BAS) it’s 68. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four tones, 230,000 speakers in Cameroon, not to be confused with Bassa (q.v.). Proverb:...
12­
hïı̀kañ
x2022
In
Bashkir (BAK) it’s 69. Turkic language spoken by 1. 2 million, primarily in Bashkortostan between the Volga and Urals. Like all...
12­ x2022  
In
Basque [Biscayan] (EUS) it’s 70. Basque is that textbook language isolate spoken in and around the Pyrenees. A forebear was Aquitanian...
12­ x2022  
In
Basque [Guipuzcoan] (EUS) it’s 71. T⁠his Basque can be heard in Guipuzcoa, a tiny Spanish province at the eastern extreme of...
12­ x2022
In
Basque [Souletin] (EUS) it’s 72. Most divergent of Basque dialects, from the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département of France. Heavily Occitan (q.v.) influences, correspondingly...
12­ x2022  
In
Bassa (BSQ) it’s 73. Niger-Congo, Kru. Seven vowels with five tones each, spoken by 400,000 in Liberia and Sierra Leone...
12­
Káná-Vɛ́nɛ́ / 𖫑𖫧𖫰𖫐𖫧𖫰-𖫣𖫬𖫰𖫐𖫬𖫰
x2022
In
Batak [Toba] (BYA) it’s 74. Batak is a cluster of Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken in North Sumatra, from which 2 million speak...
12­
ᯘᯪᯇᯂᯞᯪᯔ  [sipaha lima]
x2022
In
Bats (Batsbi or Tsova-Tush) (BBL) it’s 75. Northeast Caucasian, Nakh branch but unintelligible with Chechen or Ingush (qq.v.). Spoken in the village of...
12­
აგუისტ [aguist]
x2022
In
Belarusian (BEL) it’s 76. East Slavic, closely related to Ukrainian  (q.v.). T⁠hough Belarusian is official in Belarus, only about 12%...
12­ x2022  
In
Belep (Nyâlayu) (YLY) it’s 77. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, 1600 speakers among New Caledonia's Belep Islands. Small sound inventory, four noun classes...
12­
mwanok pwanem nua pwajen
x2022
In
Bemba (Chibemba) (BEM) it’s 78. Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantu. Tonal, spoken by 4 million in Zambia, Republic of Congo, Tanzania. Nine...
12­
akasantobo
x2022
In
Bena (BEZ) it’s 79. Niger-Congo family, Northeast Bantu, spoken by 670,000 in south-central Tanzania. A Bena greeting for the first...
12­
pa mwedzi gwa nane
x2022
In
Beothuk (BUE) it’s 80. Possibly Algonquian, spoken by a reclusive indigenous Newfoundland tribe, extinct since 1829 with the death of...
12­
wadawhegh
x2022
In
Berta [Mayu] (WTI) it’s 81. Nilo-Saharan (tentatively), native to the Benishangul-Gumuz region of Sudan and Ethiopia. Of all five Berta dialects...
12­
zigí sqúllá ógast
x2022
In
Bete [Eastern/Daloa] (BEV) it’s 82. Niger-Congo, Kru. Bété is spoken by 400,000 in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire; this is one...
12­
napɛ ŋ́ɡ͡bɔtá leyi
x2022
In
Beti [Ewondo] (Kolo) (EWO) it’s 83. Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantu, tonal, with half a million speakers of this dialect in Cameroon. It...
12­
ngɔn mwom
x2022
In
Bezhta (Kapucha) (KAP) it’s 84. Northeast Caucasian, akin to Avar (q.v.) though not mutually intelligible with it, spoken by around 6800...
12­
август [avgust]
x2022
In
Biete (Biate) (BIU) it’s 85. A Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin language spoken by 30,000 in northeastern India — Meghalaya, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, and...
12­
Thlazîng
x2022
In
Bishnupriya Manipuri (BPY) it’s 86. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indic, 120,000 native speakers in Bangladesh and Assam. Two dia­lects, Rajar Gang (“King's Village”)...
১২­
আগষ্ট / aɡəst
x২০২২
In
Bislama (BIS) it’s 87. English-Austronesian creole with 10,000 native and 200,000 non-native speakers, official in Vanuatu. Vocabulary is mostly English;...
12­
Okis
x2022
In
Blackfoot (Siksika) (BLA) it’s 88. Algonquian family, unusual pitch system, with about 5000 speakers in Montana and southern Alberta. Since Oki...
12
 / iitáyiitsimaahkao’p
x2022
In
Blin (Bilen) (BYN) it’s 89. Afroasiatic, Cushitic, with 91,000-120,000 speakers around Keren, Eritrea. Akin to Tigrinya (q.v.) and Tigre, uses an...
፲፪­
ማርያም ትሪ [mariam tiri]
x፳፳፪
In
Bonggi (Kamus Bonggi) (BDG) it’s 90. Malayo-Polynesian, North Bornean, 1400 speakers on the Banggi and Balambangan islands in Malaysia's Kudat District.
12­
buaidn waluh
x2022
In
Breton (Armoric) (BRE) it’s 91. Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Classed by UNESCO as severely endangered. Spoken in Brittany, akin to Welsh and...
12­ x2022  
In
Bukhori (Judaeo-Tajik) (BHH) it’s 92. An endangered Persian ethnolect with Hebrew, Turkic, and Slavic loans spoken by 100,000 Bukharan Jews living...
יב­
אַבגוּסט / avgust / август
xב׳כב
In
Bulgar (XBO) it’s 93. Presumably Turkic, extinct since medieval times, unrelated to modern Bulgarian (which is Indo-European, South Slavic). Right-to-left-reading...
XII xMMXXII
In
Bulgarian [Eastern Rup, 19th century] (BUL) it’s 94. Like Macedonian, Serbian/Croatian, and Slovenian (qq.v.), Bulgarian is a South Slavic language. T⁠his particular dialect comes...
12­ x2022
In
Bulgarian [Rhodope, pre-1945] (BUL) it’s 95. Another Bulgarian dialect, here from the Rhodope Mountains around Smolyan. T⁠he non-Russian vowel character Ѣ/ѣ...
12­
иѣгусъ [iegusa]
x2022
In
Burgundian (Bourguignon-morvandiau) (???) it’s 96. Indo-European, Romance, endangered Langue d’oïl spoken in Burgundy. Not to be confused with East Germanic Burgundian...
12­
août
x2022
In
Burmese (MYA) it’s 97. Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in Myanmar/Burma, tonal. Unusual sounds such as an unvoiced m and n. Script consists...
၁၂­
ဩဂုတ် [ɔ̀gouʿ]
x၂၂
In
Burum (Somba-Siawari) (BMU) it’s 98. Trans-New Guinea family, Finisterre–Huon, Western Huon, spoken by 9000 in Papua New Guinea's Morobe Province on...
12­
kömunjaŋ
x2022
In
Burushaski (BSK) it’s 99. A language isolate spoken by 90,000 in northern Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir in India. T⁠hree...
12­ x2022  
In
Burushaski [Wershikwar] (BSK) it’s 100. Native to the Wershegum region of the Yasin Valley, spoken by some 20,000 of the 90,000...
12­ x2022
In
Buryat [Premodern] (BUA) it’s 101. Mongolic language akin to Mongolian and Oirat (qq.v.). Spoken in China, Mongolia, and eastern Russia. Its...
12­
наймадугаар һара / najmadugaar ḥara
x2022



In
Cappadocian [Mistiot] (Cappadocian Greek) (CPG) it’s 102. A blend of Byzantine Greek and Turkish, presumed extinct by 1923 but rediscovered in June 2005...
12­
Αύγουστος [aüɣustos]
x2022
In
Carrier (Dakelh) (CRX) it’s 103. Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. A few hundred speakers in the Yekooche First Nation in British Columbia. Carrier...
12 x2022
In
Catalan (CAT) it’s 104. Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the country of Andorra where it's...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Cayuga (CAY) it’s 105. Iroquoian family, heard on the Six Nations of the Grand River Reserve in Ontario and the...
12­ x2022
In
Cerma (CME) it’s 106. Niger-Congo, Gur, 63,000 speakers in Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire. T⁠hree dialects: Niangoloko, Banfora, and Soubakanié...
12­
hĩɛfĩɛŋo
x2022
In
Cham [Eastern] (CJM) it’s 107. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, 245,000 speakers in Cambodia and Vietnam, descendants of the Kingdom of Champa. Akin to...
꩑꩒­
ꨝꨤꩆ ꨕꨤꨚꩆ / balan dalapăn
x꩒꩐꩒꩒
In
Cham [Western] (CJA) it’s 108. T⁠he other main Cham dialect, 73,000 speakers in Vietnam. Eastern and Western Cham have diverged so...
١٢­
بلان تڤن / blaan tapăn
x٢٠٢٢
In
Chamorro [Premodern] (CHA) it’s 109. Malayo-Polynesian, 58,000 speakers in the Marianas, about half in the US territory of Guam. T⁠his is...
12­ x2022  
In
Chamí Emberá (CMI) it’s 110. From the Chacoan family, Emberá branch, 7800 speakers. T⁠he Chamí Emberá represent about 2% of Colombia's...
12­
‘ixawil agosto
x2022
In
Chang (Mochungrr) (NBC) it’s 111. Sino-Tibetan, Brahmaputran branch, 62,000 Scheduled Chang Naga tribe speakers in Nagaland, north­eastern India. Uses the Roman...
12­
Monglit
x2022
In
Chatino [Zona Alta] (CLY) it’s 112. Zapotecan language spoken by 23,000 in southern Oaxaca, Mexico, whose tonal system ranks among the world’s...
12­
ko' ta'a bi' na'an
x2022
In
Chayahuita (Shawi) (CBT) it’s 113. One of only two languages of the Cahuapanan family, spoken by 14,000 in Loreto in Peru’s...
12­ x2022
In
Chechen 1 (CHE) it’s 114 a. Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, related to Ingush (q.v.), 2 million speakers. It features an unusually...
12­
ۏاخون  / пахун [paḫun]
x2022
In
Chechen 2 (CHE) it’s 114 b. A second alternative terminology for Chechen, inspired by the native Vainakh religion. Old Chechen saying...
12­ x2022  
In
Chechen 3 (CHE) it’s 114 c. T⁠hird alternative terminology for Chechen, secular and based on the seasons. A Chechen saying, equi­va­lent to...
12­ x2022  
In
Cherokee [Overhill] (CHR) it’s 115. Iroquoian family, Oklahoma. T⁠his is the Cherokee standard upon which Sequoyah based his unique script. Later...
12­ x2022  
In
Cherokee [Eastern] (CHR) it’s 116. T⁠he three chief dialects of Cherokee when Europeans first encountered it were Overhill, Eastern, and Lower...
12­ x2022
In
Chewa (Chichewa or Nyanja) (NYA) it’s 117. Niger-Congo family, Bantoid, spoken in Malawi and Zambia. Examples from Chewa’s extensive noun class system: frogs...
12­
mwezi wa Ogasiti
x2022
In
Cheyenne (CHY) it’s 118. Algonquian family. Four principal tones, three principal vowels (a, e, o) which in some cases can...
12­ x2022  
In
Chickasaw (CIC) it’s 119. Muskogean family, related to Alabama and Choctaw (qqv.), some 75 speakers total in Oklahoma, USA. California-based...
12­
Akus
x2022
In
Chilcotin (CLC) it’s 120. Athabaskan, approx. 860 native speakers in central British Columbia, West of Williams Lake, along Highway 20...
12­ x2022
In
Chimané [Mosetén] (CAS) it’s 121. Language isolate (?) spoken by around 2000 north of La Paz, Bolivia. Same word used for...
12­
khen’khanyatyi’ ïwaj
x2022
In
Chinese [Hakka] (HAK) it’s 122. Sino-Tibetan. Spoken by 50 million in Taiwan, Southeast China, and diaspora communities worldwide. Unin­tel­li­gible with Mandarin...
12
[bat5 ŋiet6]
x2022
In
Chinook Jargon (Wawa) (CHN) it’s 123. A trading language that thrived in the Pacific Northwest during the 19th century. Combined Native American...
12
/ Ogyust
x2022
In
Chiwere (Iowa-Otoe-Missouria) (IOW) it’s 124. Western Siouan, akin to Winnebago (q.v.), natively extinct since 1996 though there are some 40 mostly...
12­ x2022
In
Choctaw (CHO) it’s 125. Muskogean, related to Alabama and Chickasaw (qq.v.). South-Central USA, 18,000 speakers. Used by Code Talkers during...
12­
Akgs
x2022
In
Choyo (Queyu) (QVY) it’s 126. A Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic language of Yajiang and Xinlong Counties in Sichuan with approx. 7000 speakers. Choyo...
12­
da35wa55dʑe35pq53
x2022
In
Chukchansi (YOK) it’s 127. Of uncertain family, classified as Yokutsan and, by some, considered a dialect of Yokuts itself. Endemic...
12­ x2022
In
Chukchi (CKT) it’s 128. Chukotko-Kamchatkan family, about 10,000 speakers in extreme eastern Siberia. Genders are animate versus inanimate, there’s vowel...
12­
айпийъат [aypiy″at]
x2022
In
Chuukese (Trukese) (CHK) it’s 129. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, spoken by around 50,000 ethnic Chuukese on the Chuuk Islands of the Carolines plus...
12­
Ó ókos
x2022
In
Chuvash (CHV) it’s 130. Turkic, spoken by a million people in the Urals. Features “hard” versus “soft” words. Genderless, agglu­tin­ative...
­ x  
In
Cimbrian (CIM) it’s 131. A Germanic language akin to Mòcheno (q.v.) spoken by approx. 2220 in Italy's Tyrol whose grammar...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Circassian (Cherkess) [Adyghe] (ADY) it’s 132. Northwest Caucasian, half a million speakers. Features 50-60 consonant sounds, mutually intelligible with the Kabardian dialect...
12­
шышъхьаIу [šəŝḥāʔw]
x2022
In
Circassian (Cherkess) [Kabardian] (KBD) it’s 133. T⁠he other major Circassian grouping, also called East Circassian, though still mutually intelligible with Adyghe. It...
12­
шыщхьэIу [šəšḥaʔw]
x2022
In
Coeur d’Alene (CRD) it’s 134. Salishan family, Interior, Southern. Natively spoken by two elders as of 2014, though knowledge of it...
12­ x2022
In
Cofán (A’ingae) (CON) it’s 135. A seriously endangered language isolate spoken by 2400 Cofán people in Sucumbíos Province in north­east Ecuador...
12­
tavaite
x2022
In
Comanche [Eastern] (COM) it’s 136. Uto-Aztecan family, Numic; native to Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma; some two dozen speakers...
12­ x2022
In
Comorian [Maore] (Shimaore) (SWB) it’s 137. Niger-Congo family, Bantu. 80,000 speakers on the French islands of Mayotte. Traditionally (and still) written in...
١٢­
utu / عُتُ
x٢٠٢٢
In
Coptic (COP) it’s 138. Afroasiatic, Ptolemaic Egyptian. Extinct as vernacular, used for Coptic Orthodox liturgy. Greek-derived alphabet plus additional characters...
ⲓ̄ⲃ̄­ xⲃ̄̄ⲕ̄ⲃ̄  
In
Cornish (COR) it’s 139. Celtic, Brythonic. Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, natively extinct but nowadays actively studied. In the Celtic...
12­ x2022  
In
Corsican (COS) it’s 140. Indo-European, Romance. Unlike Sardinian (q.v.), this language is interintelligible with Italian. An official survey concluded “86,800...
12­
aòstu
x2022
In
Cotabato Manobo [Dulangan Manobo] (MTA) it’s 141. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 30,000 in the Sultan Kudarat and South Cotabato Provinces of Mindinao, Philippines. T⁠he...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Cree (CRE) it’s 142. Algonquian family. Formerly creolized with French and Scottish Gaelic, related to Montagnais Innu (q.v.). Canada's Northwest...
12­ x2022  
In
Creek (Muscogee or Seminole) (MUS) it’s 143. Muskogean family, tonal with nasalizations and contrastive vowel lengths, 5000 speakers in Oklahoma and Florida. Mvskoke...
12­ x2022
In
Crimean Tatar (CRH) it’s 144. Half a million speakers. Although Turkic like Tatar (q.v.), Crimean Tatar is not considered a Tatar...
12­ x2022  
In
Croatian [Traditional] (HRV) it’s 145. South Slavic, spoken in Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and parts of Serbia. Earliest writings date from 1345...
12­ x2022
In
Crow (Apsáalooke) (CRO) it’s 146. Siouan family, Western, as of 2007 spoken by 3500 in the Crow Nation in Southwest Montana...
12­ x2022  
In
Cuicatec (CUX) it’s 147. A language of the Oto-Manguean family spoken natively by 13,000 in western Oaxaca, Mexico. Tones are...
12­
a3go2sto4
x2022
In
Cuman (Polovetsian) (QWM) it’s 148. Turkic language spoken by Cuman-Kipchaks in eastern Europe, died with its last speaker, István Varró, on...
12­ x2022  
In
Curonian (XCU) it’s 149. Extinct Indo-European, Baltic language spoken until the 16th century in parts of modern Latvia, Lithuania, and...
12­
augusts
x2022
In
Czech (Bohemian) (CZE) it’s 150. West Slavic, distinct from but mutually intelligible with Slovak. Czech borrows more German; Slovak, more Hungarian...
12­ x2022  



In
Dagaare (DGA) it’s 151. Niger-Congo, Gur branch, spoken by 1.1 million Dagaaba people Ghana and Burkina Faso. Unusual consonant clusters...
12­
KyuuraaneesobO
x2022
In
Dakota (Dakhota) (DAK) it’s 152. Siouan family, mutually intelligible with Lakota. Critically endangered with around 300 speakers out of a population...
12­ x2022
In
Dalecarlian (Elfdalian) (OVD) it’s 153. North Germanic, endangered, originally expressed with Dalecarlian Runes. Unlike Swedish, with which it isn't mutually intelligible...
12­
ᚷᚵᚢᛋᛏᛁ / agusti
x2022
In
Dalmatian (DLM) it’s 154. Extinct Romance language once spoken on the Adriatic east coast. Closest living relative is Istriot (q.v.)...
12­
aguast
x2022
In
Dangaléat (DAA) it’s 155. Afroasiatic, East Chadic, 60,000 speakers concentrated in Migami Canton in Mongo, Chad. It features two vowel...
12­
tolpondo
x2022
In
Danish [Premodern/Folk] (DAN) it’s 156. North Germanic. Unlike sister languages Swedish and Norwegian, Danish uses a French-style uvular r. Unusually, it...
12­ x2022
In
Dan (DNJ) it’s 157. Niger-Congo family, Mande, 1.6 million speakers in Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia plus another 800 in Guinea...
12­
ˈUtö
x2022
In
Deg Xinag (ING) it’s 158. Athabaskan language, virtually extinct with only 40 remaining speakers in the area around the lower Yukon...
12­ x2022
In
Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabaskan)[Central] (KOY) it’s 159. Athabaskan family language spoken by approx. 300 in eastern Central Alaska. T⁠his is one of its...
12­ x2022  
In
Dena’ina (Tanaina) [Outer Inlet] (TFN) it’s 160. Dena’ina is an Athabaskan language spoken by a few dozen around Alaska’s Cook Inlet. Its over...
12­ x2022
In
Dhivehi (Maldivian) (DIV) it’s 161. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, uses its exclusive dextrosinistral (right-to-left-reading) T⁠hāna script which, unlike Arabic, always specifies vowels. Both...
12­
އޮގަސްޓު  [ōgasṫ]
x2022
In
Digaro Mishmi (Darang or Taraon) (MHU) it’s 162. “Possibly” Sino-Tibetan, 35,000 speakers in India's Arunachal Pradesh and China's Zayü County. Four tones, not usually...
12­
55 lo53 liɯm35
x2022
In
Dimasa (Kachari) (DIS) it’s 163. Sino-Tibetan, Brahmaputran, akin to Kokborok and Garo (qq.v.), 137,000 speakers in India’s Nagaland and Assam. Bengali...
১২­ x২০২২
In
Ditidaht (Nitinaht or Southern Nootka) (DTD) it’s 164. Wakashan family, Vancouver Island, virtually extinct natively. Ditidaht is one of the very few languages in...
12­ x2022
In
Djimini (Jinmini) (DYI) it’s 165. Niger-Congo, Senufo, pridefully supported by its 96,000 speakers in Côte d’Ivoire's Debakala depart­ment and in Burkina...
12­
tugutaan
x2022
In
Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì) (DGR) it’s 166. Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Native to Canada’s Northwest Territories above Great Slave Lake, 2000 speakers, partially interintelligible with...
12­ x2022  
In
Duala (DUA) it’s 167. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken natively by 90,000, as an acquired language by 2 million, in Cameroon. Duala...
12­
diŋgindi
x2022
In
Dukhan (No ISO code) it’s 168. A seriously endangered Turkic amalgam related to Tuvan, Buryat, and Tofalar (qq.v.) spoken, often mixed with...
12­ x2022
In
Dupaningan Agta (DUE) it’s 169. A Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in northeastern Luzon in the Philippines by some 1400 semi-nomadic Negrito hunter-gatherers...
12­
make-walu a bulan
x2022
In
Duru [Dii] (DUR) it’s 170. Niger-Congo, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, 50,000 to 60,000 speakers in Cameroon. Dii Duru divides further into twelve recognized...
12­
nààg bún ní
x2022
In
Dusun (Bunduliwan) (DTP) it’s 171. A Malayo-Polynesian language, standardized by the Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah, and spoken by 140,000 in Malaysia...
12­ x2022
In
Dutch [Old] (ODT) it’s 172. Indo-European, Germanic, 9th to 12th centuries CE. Literary examples: T⁠he Leiden Willeram, a com­men­tary on the...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Dutch [West Flemish] (Vlaams) (ODT) it’s 173. Dutch dialect majority language of northern Belgium, spoken also in Hauts-de-France and Zeeland, by some 6.5...
XII­ xMMXXII
In
Dyula (Jula) (DYU) it’s 174. Niger-Congo, Western Mande, East Manding, spoken by 6.9 million in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, and Mali...
߁߂­ x߂߀߂߂
In
Dzongkha (Bhutanese) (DZO) it’s 175. Sino-Tibetan family, approx. 170,000 native speakers (and an additional 470,000 non-native) in Bhutan where it's the...
༡༢­
སྤྱི་ཟླ་བརྒྱད་པ་ [spyi.zlaw.brgyad.pa]
x༢༠༢༢



In
Edo (Bini) (BIN) it’s 176. Niger-Congo family. Spoken by 1.6 million in Nigeria’s Edo State who are largely Benin Empire des­cen­dants...
12­ x2022  
In
Embu (Kîembu) (EBU) it’s 177. Niger-Congo family, Bantu. Spoken by 320,000 in two dialects, northeast of Nairobi, Kenya. “How are you?”...
12­
Mweri wa kanana
x2022
In
Emilian (EGL) it’s 178. A set of Gallo-Italic Romance dialects spoken in Italy (Emilia-Romagna region, Urbino, and Pesaro) and the...
12­
agòst
x2022
In
Emilian [Ferrarese] (EGL) it’s 179. T⁠he Emilian heard in the Italian regions of Ferrara and Veneto, which includes the city of...
12­
agóst
x2022
In
Enets (Entsy) [Forest] (ENF and ENH) it’s 180. Moribund Samoyedic language spoken by 70 out of 260 ethnic Enets of Krasnoyarsk Krai in central...
12­ x2022  
In
English [Old] (Anglo-Saxon) (ANG) it’s 181. Indo-European, Germanic, spoken 5th to 12th centuries CE. Four noun cases; three genders; definite arti­cles were...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Erromangan (Sie) [Folk/Traditional] (ERG) it’s 182. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, spoken by 1900 on Vanuatu's Erromango Island. Hardly any natives remember these archaic...
12­ x2022
In
Erromintxela (EMX) it’s 183. A unique blend of Basque and Kalderash Vlax Romani (qq.v.) spoken by around 1000 Pyrenees-dwelling Roma...
12­ x2022
In
Ersu [Ganluo] (ERS) it’s 184. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, around 13,000 speakers in western Sichuan. Documented dialects are Eastern (to which Ganluo belongs)...
12­
pa55i55ɬ ɑ33
x2022
In
Erzya (MYV) it’s 185. Uralic, Mordvinic, 37,000 speakers, akin to Moksha£ (q.v.). It uses the same alphabet as Russian, though...
12­ x2022  
In
Estonian [Premodern] (EST) it’s 186. Uralic, Finnic. Features three vowel lengths, 15 noun cases. Estonian and Finnish (q.v.) are mutually intel­li­gible...
12­ x2022  
In
Estonian [Southern] (Seto) (VRO) it’s 187. Closer to Võro (q.v.) than standard Estonian, spoken by 12,500 in the Setomaa region (Estonia/Russia). Germanic...
12­ x2022
In
Etruscan (ETT) it’s 188. Assigned to the hypothetical Tyrrhenian family, spoken on the Italian peninsula in Classical times. Writ­ten right-to-left...
 𐌠𐌠𐌢 
x𐌠𐌠𐌢𐌢𐌌𐌌
In
Even (Lamut) (EVE) it’s 189. Tungusic, akin to Evenki as shown here, 5700 speakers in eastern Siberia — Sakha, Khabarovsk, Magadan...
12­ x2022  
In
Evenki (Solon) (EVN) it’s 190. Tungusic, related to Even in the previous entry but four times as many speakers. In descending...
12­ x2022  
In
Ewe (EWE) it’s 191. Niger-Congo family, tonal, spoken by 5 million in western Africa. Related to Aja and Fon (qqv.)...
­
Dasiamime
x
In
Extremaduran (EXT) it’s 192. A Romance language of west-central Spain. Some differences from Spanish: Infinitive verbs end in L, questions...
12­
agostu
x2022
In
Eyak (EYA) it’s 193. Na-Dené, Athabaskan-Eyak, native to Cordova, Alaska, near the mouth of Copper River, extinct upon the death...
12­
ya’χ χadatsiihgw qaχah
x2022



In
Falam (Falam Chin) (CFM) it’s 194. Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin, 107,000 speakers of four main dialects in Burma (Chin State) and India. Most Falams...
12­
kum khat sung ih thla riatnak
x2022
In
Fang (FAN) it’s 195. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantoid, one million speakers predominantly in Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, beyond that in Cameroon...
12­
ngon-môme
x2022
In
Finnish (FIN) it’s 196. Uralic, Finnic, 5.4 million speakers in Scandinavia and Russia. Preliterate until the 16th century, highly inflected...
12­ x2022  
In
Fon (FON) it’s 197. Niger-Congo, Gbe, related to Aja and Ewe (qq.v.). Spoken by 2.2 million in Togo and Benin...
12­
avivɔ sùn
x2022
In
Fox (Meskwaki or Sauk) 1 (SAC) it’s 198 a. Algonquian, endangered, approx. 2000 speakers distributed through Oklahoma, Kansas, Iowa, and Coahuila (Mexico). It has two...
12­
âkishta
x2022
In
Fox (Meskwaki or Sauk) 2 (SAC) it’s 198 b. Fox as above, written with the Fox I script. T⁠his is an abugida -- halfway between...
12­
k·dt
x2022
In
Fox (Meskwaki or Sauk) 3 (SAC) it’s 198 c. T⁠his is Fox written with the Fox II script, a true alphabet showing consonants and vowels...
12
x2022
In
Frafra (Gurenɛ) (GUR) it’s 199. Niger-Congo, Gur, Mooré, related to Mossi (q.v.), spoken by 720,000 in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Its...
12­
sa-lika wõrga
x2022
In
Frankish (Old Franconian) (FRK) it’s 200. Germanic language spoken in France between the 4th and 9th centuries, evolved into Old Dutch (q.v.)...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Frisian [West] (FRY) it’s 201. Indo-European, West Germanic, considered to be the closest foreign language to English. About 470,000 speakers in...
12­ x2022  
In
Frisian [West Schiermonnikoog] (FRY) it’s 202. Heard on the Island of Schiermonnikoog off northern Netherlands, seriously endangered with fewer than 100 speakers
12­ x2022
In
Frisian [North] (Mooring or Bökingharde) (FRR) it’s 203. About 10,000 speakers in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany. A North Frisian birthday greeting is Fan...
12­ x2022  
In
Friulian (FUR) it’s 204. Indo-European, Romance. Spoken by half a million in northeastern Italy near the Slovenian border — see...
12­
avost
x2022
In
Fula (FUL) it’s 205. Niger-Congo family, western Africa, official in Senegal. Most commonly written with the Roman alphabet, less so...
𞥑𞥒­ x𞥒𞥐𞥒𞥒  
In
Fuliiru (Kifuliru) [Premodern] (FLR) it’s 206. Niger Congo, Great Lakes Bantu, 400,000 speakers north and west of Uvira, Kivu province, Democratic Republic...
12­
Umwezi gwe Kyeje
x2022
In
Fur (FVR) it’s 207. Tentatively attributed to the Nilo-Saharan family, spoken by 750,000 in South-Central Darfur in western Sudan and...
12­
Koróŋ
x2022
In
Futunan (FUT) it’s 208. Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 6600 on Vanuatu's Futuna Island and in New Caledonia. Tiny Vanuatu itself...
12­
akusito
x2022
In
Fuyu Kyrgyz (Manchurian Kirghiz) (???) it’s 209. Turkic. Not a dialect of Kyrgyz, but instead closer to Khakas (qq.v.). Spoken by fewer than...
12­
sigïs ay
x2022



In
Ga (GAA) it’s 210. Niger-Congo family, Kwa division, spoken in Ghana by over 8 million. Tonal, three contrastive vowel lengths...
­
Manyawale
x
In
Gaelic [Irish] (Irish) (GLE) it’s 211. Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic. Spoken as a first language along the Ireland’s western coast, widely in Newfoundland...
12­ x2022  
In
Gaelic [Scottish ] (GLA) it’s 212. Like Irish, also Celtic, Goidelic. Unlike Irish, Scots hyphenates its prefixes and applies grave accents to...
12­ x2022  
In
Gaelic [Scottish Archaic] (GLA) it’s 213. As Scots Gaelic above, but premodern. As shown here, an H in Goidelic script...
XII­ xMMXXII
In
Gagauz (GAG) it’s 214. Turkic, Western Oghuz, 140,000 speakers in Moldova, Ukraine, Turkey, and Russia. Gagauz's oldest texts used the...
12­
χαρμαν αγη / харман айы / harman ayı
x2022
In
Galician (GLG) it’s 215. Ibero-Romance, diverged from Portuguese, spoken in Galicia in northern Spain, regulated by the Royal Galician Academy...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Gallong (Galo) [Lare] (ADL) it’s 216. Sino-Tibetan, Tani branch, at least four dialects though likely more, 30,000 speakers. Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India...
12­
`hwo
x2022
In
Gallo (ROA-GAL) it’s 217. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’oïl. Approx. 28,000 speakers in the upper Brittany region. Gallo bears some mutual...
12­
aost
x2022
In
Gamilaraay (Kamilaroi) (KLD) it’s 218. Australian aboriginal language from the Pama-Nyungan family, Wiradhuric branch, native to northern New South Wales. Moribund...
12­ x2022
In
Garifuna (CAB) it’s 219. Arawakan language with French and Carib loans, Central America, 170,000 speakers. Men's and women's speech differ...
12­
widü hati
x2022
In
Garo (GRT) it’s 220. Sino-Tibetan family, Brahmaputran, spoken by 1.15 million in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya and in parts...
১২­
বিল্সিনি চেত্গিপা জা / bilsini chetgipa ja
x২০২২
In
Gaulish (XTG) it’s 221. Indo-European, Celtic. Pre- and post-Roman France, extinct by the 7th century CE. Modern French uses several...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Gciriku (Rumanyo) (DIU) it’s 222. Niger-Congo, Bantu, 36,000 speakers along the Okavango River in Angola, Botswana, and Namibia. Most Bantu languages...
12­
Shivóyedi
x2022
In
Georgian (KAT) it’s 223. Kartvelian family, agglutinative, lacks an f sound natively. Akin to, but unintelligible with, Svan (q.v.). Each...
იბ­
აგვისტო [agwist’o]
xცკბ
In
Georgian [Old] (KAT) it’s 224. Georgian from around 800-1000 CE, original Asomtavruli script shown. A time-honored Georgian word is შემომეჭამა...
ႨႡ­ xႺႩႡ
In
German [Old High] (GOH) it’s 225. Earliest attested German language, ca. 500-1050 CE. Old High German — or something close — appears...
XII­
Aranmānōd
xMMXXII
In
German [Early New High] (GER) it’s 226. T⁠he language shown on a 1665 calendar, at which time a written standard was well underway...
XII­
Augſtmond
xMMXXII
In
German [Alsatian] (GSW) it’s 227. Indo-European, West Germanic. Alsace in eastern France. 900,000 speakers, all bilingual with French. Unlike High German...
12­
Äugscht
x2022
In
German [Alsatian Folk] (GSW) it’s 228. Alsatian terms previous to, or aside from, the modern neo-Latin. Month characterizations echo those of other...
12­
Erntemonat
x2022
In
German [Brazilian Pomeranian] (Pomerisch) (NDS) it’s 229. Not to be confused with West Slavic Pomeranian, this is a Portuguese-infused Low German dialect spoken...
12­
im Agúst
x2022
In
German [Plautdietsch] (PDT) it’s 230. North Sea Germanic, Low German, akin to Dutch. Spoken in northern Germany, eastern areas of the...
12­
August
x2022
In
German [Ripuarian] (Kölsch) (KSH) it’s 231. Indo-European, West Germanic, Central Franconian. Cologne area, around a million speakers. Its vari­ous subdialects can identify...
12­
Aujußß
x2022
In
German [Walser] (WAE) it’s 232. Germanic, uppermost Swiss Alps, some 23,000 native speakers of nine (or so) highly divergent sub-dialects...
12­
Öigšte
x2022
In
Gitxsan (Gitksan or Gitsenimx) (GIT) it’s 233. Tsimshianic family, British Columbia, fewer than 1000 speakers, closely related to Nisga’a (q.v.). Under­scores (g/g̱...
12­
hlox̱sa lak’insxw
x2022
In
Gondi (GON) it’s 234. Dravidian family, spoken by 3 million in central India. Gondi has used several writing systems in...
𑶡𑶢­
𑶉𑵬𑶓 𑵰𑵺 / sayo man
x𑶢𑶠𑶢𑶢
In
Gothic (GOT) it’s 235. Indo-European, extinct by the 10th century though a descendant, Crimean Gothic, survived until around 1790. I-E’s...
𐌹𐌱­ x𐌱𐌹𐍂𐌺𐌱  
In
Gourmantché (Migourmantchema) (GUX) it’s 236. Niger-Congo, Gur, spoken by 900,000 in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Togo. Its nouns use circumfixes — prefix-suffix...
12­
cinii
x2022
In
Greek [Colloquial] (ELL) it’s 237. Indo-European, Hellenic. T⁠hese more descriptive terms saw use in rural areas. T⁠he chemical element praseodymium is...
ΙΒ­ x‘ΒΚΒ
In
Greenlandic [Kalaallisut] (West Greenlandic) (KAL) it’s 238. Eskimo-Aleut, official in Greenland. T⁠hree more dialects are East (Tunumiisut), North or T⁠hule (Avanersuarmiutut), and South...
12­
aggustip
x2022
In
Griko (Grecanic or Italiot Greek) (GRE) it’s 239. Variety of modern Greek, with which interintelligibility is described as poor, with 28,000 speakers in the...
12­
Αgοὺσ το / Agùsto
x2022
In
Gros Ventre (Atsina) (ATS) it’s 240. Algonquian, Arapahoan language of the Gros Ventre people of Montana whose last native speaker was supercentenarian...
12­ x2022
In
Guahibo (Sikuani) (GUH) it’s 241. From the Guahiban family, 34,000 speakers in Colombia and in the Orinoco River area in Venezuela...
12­ x2022  
In
Guanzhong [Dungan] (DNG) it’s 242. A Sino-Tibetan language that, unusually, uses Cyrillic script. Even more unusually, it had previously used a...
12­
байүә / بَيُؤ [bayüә]
x2022
In
Guaraní [Paraguayan] (GUG) it’s 243. Tupian family. T⁠his is the standard Guaraní spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay. Genderless. Oldest writings...
12­
jasypoapy
x2022
In
Guhu-Samane (Bia or Mid-Waria) (GHS) it’s 244. An isolate related to the Binanderean family, Papua New Guinea, five dialects recognized, all of 13,000...
12­
Augusu
x2022
In
Guiqiong (GQI) it’s 245. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic. A preliterate, only recently documented language with some 6000 speakers in Sichuan and Tibet...
12­
dʑε35pu53
x2022
In
Gullah (Sea Islands Creole) (GUL) it’s 246. English-based with Niger-Congo influences, principally from Sapelo Island off Georgia’s Atlantic coast. Its speakers refer to...
12­
Augus'
x2022
In
Gungu (Lugungu) (RUB) it’s 247. A Niger-Congo, Great Lakes Bantu language with 49,000 speakers in Buliisa, Hoima, and Masindi districts in...
12­
Mweri̱ Gwamunaanei
x2022
In
Gusii (Ekegusii or Kisii) [Premodern] (GUZ) it’s 248. Niger-Congo family, Northeast Bantu, 2.2 million speakers in western Kenya's Gusii district. Karie bike ...
12­ x2022  
In
Gusilay (GSL) it’s 249. Niger-Congo, Jola branch, spoken by 15,000 in Southwest Senegal. Its speakers also use other languages such...
12­
Fubojok
x2022
In
Gutnish (Gotlandic) (???) it’s 250. Endangered North Germanic language some assign to its own sub-branch, spoken by 2000–5000 on the islands...
12­
agusti
x2022
In
Gwere (Lugwere) (GWR) it’s 251. Niger-Congo, Great Lakes Bantu, 410,000 speakers in Uganda. Contrastive vowel length — long versus short. Omukali...
12­ x2022  
In
Gwich’in [Fort McPherson] (GWI) it’s 252. Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. Of all dialects inclusive, 600 speakers in Alaska and northwest Canada. Analyses of...
12­ x2022  



In
Haida (HAI) it’s 253. Language isolate native to the Haida Gwaii archipelago off the coast of British Columbia, with 14...
12­ x2022
In
Haitian Creole (HAT) it’s 254. Based on 18th century French with influences from other Romance languages, English, Taíno, and African languages...
12­
out
x2022
In
Hakha Chin (Lai) (CNH) it’s 255. Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin, Central, spoken by 450,000 in Burma, Bangladesh, India, and in western expat communities. Mutually...
၁၂­
ဪဂုသ္တ် ထ္လ / August thla
x၂၂
In
Harari (HAR) it’s 256. Afroasiatic, Semitic, approx. 25,000 speakers in Ethiopia. Originally recorded with Arabic characters, it now uses Ethiopic...
12­
سٛتخَا وَرهَي / sot-khá warhay
x2022
In
Havasupai-Hualapai (YUF) it’s 257. Yuman family, around 1500 speakers of both dialects together in northwest Arizona. About 200 Havasupai (“people...
12­ x2022
In
Hawaiian [Premodern] (HAW) it’s 258. Malayo-Polynesian, Marquesic, 24,000 native speakers on the Hawaiian Islands. Like Māori , Hawaiian has no sibilants...
12­ x2022  
In
Hawaiian [Premodern Maui] (HAW) it’s 259. Premodern Hawaiian terms native to the Island of Maui. Hawaiian peculiarity: T⁠he words for “mother” and...
12­ x2022
In
Heiltsuk-Oowekyala [Heiltsuk] (HEI) it’s 260. Wakashan family, spoken natively by 60 people around Bella Bella and Klemtu on British Columbia's northern...
12­ x2022
In
Herero (Otjiherero) (HER) it’s 261. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by around 200,000 of at least six different ethnicities in Angola, Botswana, and...
12­
Okatjose
x2022
In
Hidatsa (HID) it’s 262. Western Siouan, spoken by 200 in North and South Dakota and Montana. A relatively modest sound...
12­ x2022
In
Hiligaynon (Ilongo) (HIL) it’s 263. Malayo-Polynesian, Visaya group, spoken in the Philippines. T⁠he indigenous abugida script shown, Baybayin, dates from the...
­ x  
In
Hmong Daw [White Miao] (MWW) it’s 264. Hmong-Mien family, native to mountainous areas in SE Asia. T⁠his Hmong language has an unvoiced m...
𞅁𞅂­
𞄘𞄦𞄱𞄉𞄄𞄴𞄦𞄂𞄧𞄲𞄸 / Yim hlis ntuj
x𞅂𞅀𞅂𞅂
In
Ho (HOC) it’s 265. Austroasiatic, Munda, 1.4 million speakers in India’s Jharkhkand, Odisha, and West Bengal and in Bangladesh. Ho’s...
𑣡𑣢­
𑢷𑣁𑣔𑣉 / Bádo
x𑣢𑣠𑣢𑣢
In
Holikachuk (HOI) it’s 266. Athabaskan language, central Alaska, extinct. It used 37 consonants, 7 of which were ejectives. Its last...
12­
Nadathiq’iz Mininh Iligh
x2022
In
Homshetsi (Hamshen or Homshetsma) (HYW) it’s 267. Archaic Armenian dialect spoken by 14,000 in Turkey, preliterate until 1995. Homshetsi is only partially interintelligible...
12­
աղուստոս [ağustos]
x2022
In
Hopi (HOP) it’s 268. Uto-Aztecan family, approx. 7000 native speakers in Northeast Arizona. Bitonal with four distinct dialects, identified by...
12­ x2022  
In
Hrangkhol (Hrangkhawl) (HRA) it’s 269. T⁠his Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin language is rated vulnerable with 19,000 speakers in India’s Assam, Tripura, Manipur, and...
12­
thazim
x2022
In
Hrê (HRE) it’s 270. Austroasiatic family, Bahnaric, Sedang-Todrah, 94,000 speakers among the Hrê/H're people of Vietnam's Binh Dinh, Gia Lai...
12­
khê rahem
x2022
In
Huichol [Wixarika] (HCH) it’s 271. Uto-Aztecan language with 45,000 speakers, native to west-central Mexico. Creates long “sentence words” with prefixes and...
12­
’ixitarixa
x2022
In
Hungarian [Premodern secular] (OHU) it’s 272. Uralic family, closely akin to only two other surviving languages — Khanty and Mansi (qq.v.). T⁠his...
𐳼𐳺𐳺­ x𐳿 𐳿𐳼𐳼𐳺𐳺  
In
Hungarian [Premodern religious] (OHU) it’s 273. Church-based Hungarian of similar antiquity. Its Old Hungarian script, székely–magyar rovásírás, saw use in remote areas...
𐳼𐳺𐳺­ x𐳿 𐳿𐳼𐳼𐳺𐳺
In
Hungarian [Reform Era] (HUN) it’s 274. T⁠he Hungarian language during its nationalistic fervor of 1825-1848. As you can see by examining the...
12­ x2022
In
Huron (Wyandot) [17th-18th centuries] (WYA) it’s 275. Iroquoian family, Five Nations, Huronian, native to Quebec. As recorded by French Jesuits from the 1650s...
12­ x2022



In
Iatmül (IAN) it’s 276. Sepik family, spoken in four dialects by 8400 in the Sepik River Basin of Papua New...
12­ x2022
In
Iban (IBA) it’s 277. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken natively by 790,000 ethnic Dyak in Malaysia's state of Sarawak, Indonesia's province of West...
12­ x2022  
In
Icelandic [Premodern] (ISL) it’s 278. Indo-European, North Germanic, 314,000 speakers. Descended from Old Norse, its written form, if not its oral...
12­ x2022  
In
Idu Mishmi (Chulikata) (CLK) it’s 279. Sino-Tibetan, endangered. India’s Dibang Valley District of Arunachal Pradesh, three dialects. Proverb: Imu khege mey tapumme...
१२­
ह़ुर [hira]
x२०२२
In
Igbo (IBO) it’s 280. Niger-Congo, tonal, proverb-heavy, Nigeria. Origin of the word “okra.” Actor Chiwetel Ejiofor of Amistad and ...
12­
ónwa ásaton’áfò
x2022
In
Ik (IKX) it’s 281. Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak branch, 7500 speakers in Uganda along Kenya’s northwest border, severely endangered. Features 4 implosive...
12­ x2022
In
Ingrian (Izhorian) (IZH) it’s 282. Uralic, Finnic language with only 120 speakers around Gulf of Finland. If it’s afternoon, an Ingrian...
12­
aukusti
x2022
In
Ingush 1 (INH) it’s 283 a. Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, tonal, spoken by 500,000 in the Russian republics of Chechnya and...
12­ x2022  
In
Ingush 2 (INH) it’s 283 b. Alternative terminology. During World War II, fearing their distinctiveness, Stalin mercilessly banished the Ingush along with...
12­ x2022
In
Inuktitut [Modern] (IKU) it’s 284. Eskimo-Aleut family, north of Canada's tree line. T⁠here are some 35,000 speakers and, unlike the case...
12­
ᐊᐅᒍᔅ / Augus
x2022
In
Inuktitut [Nunavik] (IKU) it’s 285. A dialect of Inuktitut spoken in fourteen coastal villages of Nunavik — a semi-autonomous region occupying...
12 x2022
In
Inuktitut [Qikiqtaaluk] (IKU) it’s 286. Inuktitut terminology used in the Baffin Region. Seasons lag a month from Nunavik (q.v.). “How are...
12 x2022
In
Inupiaq [North Slope/Coastal] (IPK) it’s 287. Eskimo-Aleut family, extreme northwest Alaska. Including all Inupiaq dialects, there are about 2000 native speakers. Agglutinative.
­ x  
In
Inupiaq [Malemiut] (IPK) it’s 288. Inupiaq dialect native to northwest Alaska’s Kotzebue Sound, around the towns of Deering, Kivalina, Kotzebue, and...
­ x
In
Iraqw (IRK) it’s 289. Afroasiatic, Cushitic, spoken by 600,000 in Tanzania's Arusha Region. T⁠hree genders, sentences end with a verb...
12­ x2022  
In
Istriot (Rovignese) (IST) it’s 290. Closely related to extinct Dalmatian (q.v.), this Romance language is spoken by around 400 on Croatia's...
12­
augoûsto
x2022
In
Itelmen (ITL) it’s 291. Of Chukotko-Kamchatkan, the sole surviving Kamchatkan language, spoken by fewer than 100 in and around the...
12­ x2022
In
Iu Mien (Yao) (IUM) it’s 292. Hmong-mien family, spoken by 840,000 of a Yao subgroup Iu Mien, in China, Laos, T⁠hailand, Vietnam...
12­
betv hlaax
x2022
In
Izere [Ibor] (IZR) it’s 293. Niger-Congo family, Plateau, 50,000 to 100,000 speakers total in Nigeria’s Fobur region northeast of Abuja. Of...
12­
Àwúdìng
x2022



In
Japanese [Heian] (OJP) it’s 294. Old to Middle Japanese dating from the Heian Period (794-1185). T⁠his was when the language was...
x  
In
Japhug [Kamnyu Village] (JYA) it’s 295. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, Rgyalgrongic, as spoken in Mbarkham County in Sichuan, China. Preliterate and, remarkably, non-tonal. To...
12­
βɟɤtpa jamar
x2022
In
Jaqaru (JQR) it’s 296. With Aymara (q.v.), the other member of the Aymaran family, natively spoken by 740 in the...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Jarai (JRA) it’s 297. Malayo-Polynesian language akin to Cham (q.v.), spoken in Vietnam and Cambodia and by Vietnam War refugees...
12­
blan sơpăn
x2022
In
Jebero (Shiwilu) (JEB) it’s 298. Cahuapanan family, moribund, spoken by a few dozen elders. T⁠he Jeberos number around 2500 and live...
12­ x2022
In
Jemez (Towa) (TOW) it’s 299. From the tiny Tanoan family, spoken by 3000 exclusively in Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico. Tonal. Jemez...
12­
Festival month
x2022
In
Jerba Berber (JBN) it’s 300. Afroasiatic, Berber, Zenati branch, spoken by 10,000 on the Tunisian island of Jerba — the supposed...
12­
ghusht
x2022
In
Jingpho (Kachin) (KAC) it’s 301. Sino-Tibetan, Brahmaputran with 900,000 speakers in Kachin State, Burma, and Yunan Province, China. Five tones, commonly...
12­ x2022  
In
Jju (Kaje or Kache) (KAJ) it’s 302. Niger-Congo, West Plateau, spoken by 300,000 Bajjus in Nigeria’s southern Kaduna state. Forms many plurals by...
12­
Hywan A̱ninai
x2022
In
Jola-Fonyi (DYO) it’s 303. Niger-Congo family, Central Jola group, spoken by 410,000 in Senegal and T⁠he Gambia. T⁠he 2004 Oscar-nominated...
12­
ut
x2022
In
Jurchen (DTA) it’s 304. Extinct language from the Tungusic family which evolved into Manchu (q.v.) around the 17th century. T⁠his...
12
jakūn biya
x2022



In
Kabiye (KBP) it’s 305. Niger-Congo, Gur, Grũsi. Tonal, ten noun classes, spoken by 1.2 million in Togo, Benin, and Ghana...
12­
lutɔzɔ fenaɣ
x2022
In
Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean Creole) (KEA) it’s 306. Oldest surviving creole, based on 15th century Portuguese, spoken by 870,000 on the island nation of...
12­
agostu
x2022
In
Kabwa (Ekikabwa) (CWA) it’s 307. Niger-Congo, Northeast Bantu, 14,000 speakers in Tanzania's Mara Region adjacent to Lake Victoria. Kabwa has 23...
12­
Egundya mbubha
x2022
In
Kabyle (Taqbaylit) (KAB) it’s 308. Afroasiatic, Berber, spoken in Algeria. Masculine nouns in Kabyle can be feminized, or made dimin­u­tive, by...
ⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠­
ⵖⵓⵛⵜ [ɣuct]
xⴵⴵⵔⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠
In
Kaili [Ledo] (Ledo Kaili) (LEW) it’s 309. Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, native to Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Of the 13 Kaili dialects, Ledo, with 350,000 speakers...
12­
bula uvalu
x2022
In
Kainji [Piti-Atsam] (PCN) it’s 310. Niger-Congo family, Platoid, native to Nigeria's Kainji Lake region. T⁠he 60-odd Kanji languages have around a...
12­
pen awurr
x2022
In
Kako (Mkako) (KKJ) it’s 311. Niger-Congo family, Bantu. Spoken by around 120,000 who are mostly Batouri and Ndélélé in Cameroon, including...
12­
x2022
In
Kalapuya (KYL) it’s 312. Tiny language family with three members, once spoken in western Oregon, extinct. Central Kalapuya's last speaker...
12­ x2022
In
Kalinga [Lubuagan] (KNB) it’s 313. Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Cordilleran. Kalinga is spoken by 110,000 Igorot people, 12,000 of whom speak this...
12­
bisbis
x2022
In
Kamba {Kenya} (KAM) it’s 314. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken in Kenya and Tanzania. First recorded in audio in 1911. Not to be...
12­
Mwai wa nyaanya
x2022
In
Kankanaey [Northern] (XNN) it’s 315. A Malayo-Polynesian language spoken on Luzon in the Philippines. Kankanaey has 240,000 speakers; Northern Kankanaey, 94,000...
12­ x2022  
In
Kannada (Kanarese) (KAN) it’s 316. Dravidian family, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, 45 million speakers in India's Karnataka State and surrounding areas. It has...
೧೨­
ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ [āgasṭ]
x೨೦೨೨
In
Kanza (Kaw) (KSK) it’s 317. A language from the Siouan family spoken by the Kaw people of Kansas, natively extinct. Its...
12­ x2022
In
Kapingamarangi (Kirinit) (KPG) it’s 318. Severely endangered Polynesian language with around 3000 speakers on the Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei Islands of Micronesia...
12­
walu malama
x2022
In
Kaqchikel (CAK) it’s 319. Mayan family, 450,000 speakers in Guatemala's Central Highlands. Kaqchikel intensifies adjectives by reduplication — repeating them...
12­
ruwaqxaq ik’
x2022
In
Karachay-Balkar [Pre-modern] (KRC) it’s 320. Turkic language spoken by 240,000 in the Kabardino-Balkaria region of the North Caucasus and sev­eral other...
12­
жайны арт айы [džaini art ayi]
x2022
In
Karakalpak (Qaraqalpaq) (KAA) it’s 321. Turkic, akin to Kazakh (q.v.), approx. 400,000 speakers in Uzbekistan. Observes vowel harmony except with Russian...
12­ x2022
In
Karang (KZR) it’s 322. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four dialects, 18,000 speakers in Cameroon. Adds letters Ɓ (B with hook), Ɗ (D...
12­
few mahpuŋ
x2022
In
Karbi (Mikir or Arleng) (MJW) it’s 323. Sino-Tibetan, though its position within that family remains speculative. Two main dialects, 500,000 speakers in the...
12­
paipai
x2022
In
Karelian [Standard] (KRL) it’s 324. Uralic, Finnic, 36,000 speakers. Non-Karelians typically call it a Finnish (q.v.) dialect, though in fact Old...
12­ x2022
In
Karelian [Livvi/Olonets] (OLO) it’s 325. About 30,000 speakers, mostly clustered northeast of Saint Petersburg, adjacent to the eastern shore of Lake...
12­ x2022  
In
Karen [S’gaw] (KAR) it’s 326. From the Sino-Tibetan family, Karen divides into three branches: S’gaw, Pwo and Pa’o. S’gaw is spoken...
၁၂
/ [lah ku]
x၂၂
In
Karuk (KYH) it’s 327. Language isolate native to Northwest California's Siskiyou, Humboldt, and Del Norte counties. As of 2007, a...
12­
irákuusra
x2022
In
Kasena (Kasem) (XSM) it’s 328. Niger-Congo, Gur, 250,000 speakers in Ghana (where it's official) and Burkina Faso. T⁠he alphabets the two...
12­ x2022
In
Kaska (KKZ) it’s 329. Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Fewer than 300 native speakers in towns in the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and...
12­ x2022
In
Katso (Kazhuo) (KAF) it’s 330. Sino-Tibetan, Loloish, 4000 ethnic Mongol speakers, Tonghai County in Yunnan, China. Eight tones. To help out...
12­
pa32333
x2022
In
Kayan {Malayo-Polynesian} [Baram] (KCT) it’s 331. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken in central Borneo in two dialects of weak interintelligibility. T⁠he Bornean Kayan greeting "Have...
12­
bulan saya’
x2022
In
Kazakh (KAZ) it’s 332. Altaic, Turkic, akin to Karakalpak (q.v.). In 2017 Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev decreed a com­plete switch...
12­ x2022  
In
Kemezung (Dumbo) (DMO) it’s 333. Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid, 4500 speakers in or about the villages of Dumbu and Kwei in...
12­ x2022
In
Kenyah [Lepo’ Tau] (XKL) it’s 334. Malayo-Polynesian, North Bornean, Kenyah, Highland B group. T⁠here are about a dozen Kenyah dialects spoken on...
12­
bulan aya
x2022
In
Keres (Keresan) (KEE/KJQ) it’s 335. Language isolate group spoken in New Mexico, tonal, with an extremely large consonant and vowel inventory...
12­
y’aamuni daawaatra
x2022
In
Ket (KET) it’s 336. Sole surviving language from the Yeniseian family, seriously endangered, 150 speakers in Siberia’s Yenisei River valley...
12­
ульбънна ӄип [ulhbˤnna qip]
x2022
In
Khakas [Koybal] (KJH) it’s 337. Turkic language spoken by 43,000 (most of whom are bilingual in Russian) in the Khakassia Republic...
12­ x2022  
In
Khakas [Sagay] (KJH) it’s 338. Another dialect of Khakas. Saying: “Horses become acquainted by neighing, people by talking.”
12­ x2022
In
Khanty (KCA) it’s 339. Uralic language related to Mansi (q.v.) and Hungarian with 12,000 speakers in Russia’s Khanty–Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets...
12­
питәӆ войәҳ тыӆәс [pitĕl̦ woyĕx̌ tyl̦ĕs]
x2022
In
Khanty [Eastern] (KCA) it’s 340. Eastern Khanty terms collected 1956-1957. T⁠hen as now, Khanty uses a single word for both blue...
12­ x2022
In
Kharia (KHR) it’s 341. Austroasiatic family, Munda branch, about 300,000 speakers in Nepal, mainland India, and the Andaman and Nicobar...
12­ x2022
In
Khasi (KHA) it’s 342. Austroasiatic family, Mon-Khmer, spoken by about one million in the Meghalaya state in India. Uses the...
12­
'nái-lár [naːj laːr]
x2022
In
Khmer (Cambodian) (KHM) it’s 343. Austroasiatic family, Mon-Khmer branch, heavy Sanskrit influences. Oldest inscription dates from 611 CE. Like T⁠hai, Khmer...
១២­ x២០២២  
In
Khoekhoe [Nàmá] (HQM) it’s 344. Khoe family, 200,000 speakers all dialects inclusive in Namibia, Batswana, South Africa. Tonal; includes 20 clicks...
12­
hõarib
x2022
In
Khowar (Chitrali) (KHW) it’s 345. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, 450,000 speakers mostly in Pakistan. Five dialects, month names can vary from one Chitrali...
۱۲­
موژمس / muž mas  
x۲۰۲۲
In
Kiche’ (Quiché) (QUC) it’s 346. Mayan family, spoken by 2.3 million in Guatemala, 13 percent of whom are monolingual. T⁠he famous...
12­
uwajxaq ik’
x2022
In
Kiga 1 (Rukiga) (CGG) it’s 347 a. Niger-Congo, Central Bantu. Uganda and Rwanda. Prefixes indicate the class of a noun. For example, prefix...
12­
Okwamunaana
x2022
In
Kiga 2 (Rukiga) (CGG) it’s 347 b. Alternate Kiga terminology, considered “Classical.” Saying: Okukurabura akabi naba arimunywani wawe. (“He who warns you of...
12­ x2022
In
Kikuyu (Gikuyu) (KIK) it’s 348. Niger-Congo, Northeast Bantu, 6.6 million speakers in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. T⁠hree tones: high, low, low-rising...
12­
Mwere wa kanana
x2022
In
Kiliwa (KLB) it’s 349. Yuman language, three pitch accents, northern Baja California. Four native speakers reported as of 2018, though...
12­
ja’la’ mí
x2022
In
Kiowa (KIO) it’s 350. One of seven languages belonging to the Tanoan family, seriously endangered, 100 speakers in western Oklahoma...
12­ x2022
In
Kiribati (Gilbertese) (GIL) it’s 351. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, 120,000 speakers. Its alphabet has 13 letters. "Kiribati" is pronounced keer-i-bass, as natively this...
12­
Aokati
x2022
In
Koasati (Coushatta) (CKU) it’s 352. Muskogean language, tonal, spoken by 200 Coushatta people who live just north of Elton, LA and...
12­
akáska
x2022
In
Kodi (Kudi) (KOD) it’s 353. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, 20,000 politically isolated speakers on Sumba Island, Indonesia. In the manner of Celtic...
12­ x2022  
In
Koho (KPM) it’s 354. Austroasiatic, Bahnaric, twelve dialects, 200,000 speakers in Vietnam's Lâm Đồng Province. Con­trast­ive vowel length; prefix tön-...
12­
kəənhaj pʰaːm
x2022
In
Kokborok (Tripuri) (TRP) it’s 355. Sino-Tibetan language of India and Bangladesh, spoken by 900,000. Uses high and low tones. Its speakers...
12­
talbang
x2022
In
Kom (BKM) it’s 356. Niger-Congo, Northwest Cameroon. Most of its 127,000 speakers are bilingual with English. Although Kom is tri-tonal...
12­ x2022
In
Komi (Komi-Ziryan) (KPV) it’s 357. Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Permic, akin to Udmurt (q.v.). Spoken by 160,000 in Russia’s Komi Republic. T⁠he Old...
12­
𐍨𐍞𐍗 / моз [moz]
x2022
In
Komo {Nilo-Saharan} (XOM) it’s 358. Nilo-Saharan (possibly), Koman; 10,000 speakers in Sudan, 8500 in Ethiopia. T⁠hree tones, uses ejective and implosive...
12­
pay kkoshkkolo ayuk a sʉ
x2022
In
Kongo (KON) it’s 359. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by over six million in Angola and both Congos. T⁠he words “zombie” and...
12­
sánza ya mwámbe
x2022
In
Konso (KXC) it’s 360. Afroasiatic, Cushitic, spoken by 240,000 south of Lake Chamo in Ethiopia. Serves as a lingua franca...
12­
sessayʃa
x2022
In
Korku (KFQ) it’s 361. Austroasiatic, Munda. 727,133 speakers in rural central and eastern India. Rapidly losing ground to Hindi, UNESCO...
12­ x2022
In
Kosraean (Kusaiean) (KOS) it’s 362. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, spoken by 8000 on Kosrae of the Caroline Islands (where it's the official language)...
12­
ohkuhs
x2022
In
Kpelle (KPE) it’s 363. Niger-Congo, Western Mande, 1.3 million speakers total in Guinea and Liberia. T⁠hree dialects, three tones. When...
12­
Manaai
x2022
In
Kposo (Ikposo) (KPO) it’s 364. Niger-Congo, Kwa, 160,000 speakers in Togo and Ghana. Consonant clusters kp and gb frequently occur, along...
12­ x2022
In
Ksingmul (PUO) it’s 365. Austroasiatic, Mon-Khmer, spoken by 27,000 ethnic Ksingmul (Xinh Mul in Vietnamese) in Sơn La and...
12­
bluən peːt
x2022
In
Kumandin (???) it’s 366. Turkic, East Uyghur (or Altai, according to some) branch, approx. 1000 speakers among the Sayan Moun­tains...
12­ x2022
In
Kumyk (KUM) it’s 367. A Turkic language related to Karachay-Balkar (q.v.), spoken by approx. 400,000 in Dagestan. Influenced by Northeast...
12­
туршу / نُرْشُو    [turšu]
x2022
In
Kumzari (ZUM) it’s 368. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, preliterate, spoken by 4000-5000 on northern Oman’s Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz...
۱۲­
ما أشت / mā ašt
x۲۰۲۲
In
Kuna (Cuna or Guna) (CUK) it’s 369. Chibchan family, spoken by 60,000 Kuna people of Panama's San Blas Islands and the northern coast...
12­ x2022
In
Kurdish [Kurmanji/North] (KMR) it’s 370. Indo-European family, Indo-Iranic. Of the 25 million in the Middle East for all dialects inclusive, 75%...
12­ x2022  
In
Kurdish [Kurmanji/North/Yazidi] (KMR) it’s 371. While Kurdish Gregorian month terminology follows no particular standard, this is a version typically associated with...
12
 / t’ebax
x2022
In
Kurdish [Sorani/South] (CKB) it’s 372. T⁠he Kurdish dialect second in number of speakers to Kurmanji. Sorani uses a modified Arabic script...
۱۲­
ئاب / ab
x۲۰۲۲
In
Kusasi (Kusaal) [Western or Mowed] (KUS) it’s 373. Niger-Congo, Gur, 17,000 speakers in Burkina Faso. Tonal. T⁠here's also an Eastern dialect, spoken in neighboring...
12­ x2022
In
Kutenai (Ktunaxa) (KUT) it’s 374. Language isolate spoken by 100 in British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho. No distinction between voiced versus...
12­ x2022
In
Kuu-Kizhi (???) it’s 375. Turkic, Central Turkic, Northern Altai. Around 2000 speakers in Russia's Altai Republic along the Lebed’ River...
12­
орок ай [orok ay]
x2022
In
Kven (FKV) it’s 376. A seriously endangered Finnic language spoken by a few thousand mostly in the communities of Storfjord...
12­
aukustikuu
x2022
In
Kwamera (Ni̵fe) (TNK) it’s 377. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Melanesian, spoken by 2000 or so within sight of Yasur Volcano on Tanna, Vanuatu...
12­
Kuramai
x2022
In
Kwangali (KWN) it’s 378. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, spoken by 84,000 in the Okavango River area of Namibia and Angola. Unusually...
12­
Siwogedi
x2022
In
Kyrgyz (KIR) it’s 379. Turkic, Kipchak, spoken by 4 million in Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and China. First written with Old...
12­
баш оона / baş oona / باش وونا
x2022



In
Lach (???) it’s 380. Either a dialect of Czech, Polish, or Silesian — depending on whom you’d rather please. Óndra...
12­ x2022
In
Ladakhi (Bhoti or Balti) (LBJ) it’s 381. Sino-Tibetan language spoken by around 130,000 in India, Nepal, China, and Pakistan. Ladakhi and Tibetan are...
12­
dawa gyad pa
x2022
In
Ladin [Badiotto] (LLD) it’s 382. Ladin (pronounced la-deen), not to be confused with Ladino, is a Romance language related to Romansh...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Ladin [Cadorean] (LLD) it’s 383. T⁠he Ladin dialect heard in Cadore in the Italian province of Belluno bordering on Austria. While...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Ladin [Fassa Valley] (LLD) it’s 384. Another Ladin dialect, spoken in the Italian Alpine province of Trentino. Singer Martina Iori, winner of...
12­
aọst
x2022
In
Ladin [Gardenese] (LLD) it’s 385. A fourth Ladin dialect, 8000 speakers in Val Gardena. Kurat Josef Anton Vian published the first...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Ladin [Nones] (LLD) it’s 386. A fifth Ladin dialect, spoken in the Non Valley. Whether Nones should be considered a dialect...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo) (LAD) it’s 387. Medieval Spanish substrate with Hebrew, Arabic, and Turkish loans. Spoken by perhaps 50,000 Sephardic Jews worldwide...
יב­
اَكُسْتُ /  אגוסטו / agosto
xב׳כב
In
Lahu (LHU) it’s 388. Sino-Tibetan family, Loloish, 600,000 speakers in China, T⁠hailand, Burma, and Laos. Used also as a lingua...
12­
ɔgûʔ
x2022
In
Lak (LBE) it’s 389. Northeast Caucasian, spoken by approx. 160,000 in southern Dagestan, enriched by loans from Russian, Turkish, Arabic...
12­
میَیلچِنمُر بَرز / мяйлчинмур барз [myaylčinmur barz]
x2022
In
Lakota (LKT) it’s 390. Siouan-Catawban family, spoken by approx. 6000 in the US Dakotas. Heard in the 1990 movie Dances...
12­ x2022  
In
Lama (LAS) it’s 391. Niger-Congo, Gur, Gurunsi, 260,000 speakers in Benin and Togo in three dialects. T⁠hree tones also: high...
12­ x2022
In
Lao [Standard] (LAO) it’s 392. Kra–Dai family, Tai, 30 million speakers in Laos, T⁠hailand, and Cambodia. Contrastive vowel length, 6 tones...
໑໒­ x໒໐໒໒  
In
Lao [Isan] (TTS) it’s 393. A group of Lao dialects spoken in Northeast T⁠hailand by ethnic Isans. You say to-maaa-to: As...
๑๒­
สิงหาคม [singhakom]
x๒๐๒๒
In
Latgalian (LTG) it’s 394. Indo-European, Baltic, 150,000 speakers primarily in Latgale in eastern Latvia. Akin to Lithuanian, Samogitian (qq.v.), and...
12­ x2022
In
Laz (Lazuri) (LZZ) it’s 395. Kartvelian family, spoken in five major dialects by approx. 22,000 on the southeast shore of the...
იბ­ xცკბ  
In
Lenape (Delaware) (DEL) it’s 396. Algonquian, native to the lower Delaware and Hudson Rivers and northern New Jersey in the US...
12­ x2022
In
Leonese (AST) it’s 397. Endangered Romance language, considered by many a dialect of an Asturian-Leonese continuüm, undergoing revival in Northwest...
12­
agostu
x2022
In
Lepcha (LEP) it’s 398. Sino-Tibetan, Himalayish, non-tonal, unique Brahmic syllabary script, called rong, dating from the 1600s. India's Sikkim and...
᱁᱂­
ᰎᰪᰲᰟᰧᰮ ᰜᰟᰨ [purvim lavo]
x᱂᱀᱂᱂
In
Lezgian (LEZ) it’s 399. Northeast Caucasian, uses 54 consonant sounds, numerals 20 to 99 are expressed vigesimally (by 20s). Official...
12­
пахун / پآخاون [paχun]
x2022
In
Lezgian [Premodern] (LEZ) it’s 400. Conjectured Lezgian terminology of old. Back then or just as much even now, Lezgians may greet...
12­
нава [nava]
x2022
In
Lhao Vo (Lhaovo or Langsu or Maru) (MHX) it’s 401. Sino-Tibetan, Loloish, 100,000 speakers. Heard in Luxi City, Lianghe and Longchuan Counties in China, and eastern...
12­
lɔ̱55 ʃɛʔ55  khjɛʔ55
x2022
In
Ligurian [Genoese] (LIJ) it’s 402. Indo-European, Romance, northern Italy, endangered. Its written standards are administered by the Genoese Académia Ligùstica do...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Ligurian [Monégasque] (LIJ) it’s 403. Ligurian dialect spoken by 8500 in Monaco including its royal family. Employs the non-Italian ü (as...
12­
austru
x2022
In
Limburgish (LIM) it’s 404. Germanic, East Low Franconian, Limburg (in both T⁠he Netherlands and Belgium) & Rhineland areas. Unlike many...
12­
augustus
x2022
In
Limbu (LIF) it’s 405. Sino-Tibetan, akin to Lepcha (q.v.) and Tibetan, with 380,000 native speakers of four dialects in Sikkim...
᥇᥈
/ [thesekpa]
x᥈᥆᥈᥈
In
Lingala (LIN) it’s 406. Niger-Congo, Bantu, tonal. Spoken by 15 million in both Congos. Lingala signifies noun classes with prefixes...
12­
sánzá ya mwambe
x2022
In
Lingarak (Neverver) (LGK) it’s 407. Malayo-Polynesian, Malekula subgroup, spoken by 500 central Malekula Island natives in Vanuatu. Clearly a yam-centered frame...
12­ x2022
In
Lisu [Northern] (LIS) it’s 408. Sino-Tibetan, Loloish, related to similarly named Lahu (q.v.). T⁠here are 940,000 speakers for all dialects of...
12­
hinrhan
x2022
In
Lisu [Southern] (LIS) it’s 409. Another Lisu dialect, "Yellow Lo," spoken in southwestern Yunnan, Burma’s Shan State, and T⁠hailand. Uses unusual...
12­
ꓦꓰꓽ ꓦ,  / he21 hǎ [he21 ha35]
x2022
In
Lithuanian (LIT) it’s 410. Indo-European, Baltic, 3 million speakers. Unusually, its alphabet places Y after Į. Earliest writings date from...
12­ x2022  
In
Livonian (LIV) it’s 411. Uralic, akin to Finnish and Estonian (qq.v.). Its last native speaker was Grizelda Kristina (1910–2013); but...
12­ x2022  
In
Lombard [Eastern] (LMO) it’s 412. Romance, spoken in northern Italy around Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Crema, and Trentino. Lombard and its dialects...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Lombard [Eastern Bergamasque] (LMO) it’s 413. A subdivision of Eastern Lombard spoken by 700,000. One non-Italian feature of Lombard is its vowel...
12­
agóst
x2022
In
Lombard [Western] (Insubric) (LMO) it’s 414. T⁠he Lombard spoken in southern Switzerland and northern Italy around Milan. A slang version of Insubric...
12­
aust
x2022
In
Lorrain [Vosgien La Bresse] (???) it’s 415. Romance, Langue d’oïl, Lorraine subgroup. Lorraine's dialects are spoken in France in Vosges, Saint Quirin, eastern...
12­
ost’
x2022
In
Lorrain [Vosgien Ville sur Illon] (???) it’s 416. Another Vosgien variety, one specifically heard in Ville-sur-Illon, a commune in the Vosges department in Grand...
12­
ou
x2022
In
Lotha (NJH) it’s 417. A Sino-Tibetan, Central Naga language spoken by 180,000 in Nagaland’s Wokha region in eastern India. Like...
12­
jikanika
x2022
In
Louisiana Creole (LOU) it’s 418. French-derived, African plus Native American elements. Unlike French, verbs don’t conjugate. Not to be confused with...
12­
août
x2022
In
Lower Tanana (Minto) (TAA) it’s 419. Endangered Athabaskan language with a dozen or so speakers. Exclusive to Minto, Alaska, that takes its...
12­ x2022
In
Loxrlavu [Yao’an] (Lolopo) (YCL) it’s 420. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi. Spoken by 570,000 Loxrlapor in China's Chuxiong Prefecture and Xiangyun County, Midian...
12­
𖼦𖽺𖼧𖼖𖼧𖽨  /  hei66xlxiu33
x2022
In
Lozi (LOZ) it’s 421. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, spoken in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. It arose as a...
12­
Muyana
x2022
In
Luba-Kasai (Ciluba or Western Luba) (LUA) it’s 422. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, spoken by 6.3 million in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of...
12­
ngondo wa muanda mukulu
x2022
In
Luba-Katanga (LUB) it’s 423. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, spoken by 1.5 million in T⁠he Democratic Republic of the Congo’s the Katanga...
12­
Lùshìkà
x2022
In
Ludic (LUD) it’s 424. Uralic, Finnic, critically endangered, heard around the northeastern shore of Lake Onega, Republic of Karelia, Russia...
12­ x2022  
In
Luganda (Ganda) (LUG) it’s 425. Niger-Congo, Northeast Bantu, 4 million speakers mostly in the Baganda area of Uganda, tonal (high, low...
12­
muwakanya
x2022
In
Lugbara (LGG) it’s 426. Nilo-Saharan family, Uganda’s west Nile region and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. First written in...
12­
Iripaku
x2022
In
Luo [Acholi] (ACH) it’s 427. Nilo-Saharan family, Luo, Southern, spoken by 2.1 million in Uganda and South Sudan. T⁠he Luo dia­lects...
12­
Dwe me aboro
x2022
In
Luo [Dholuo] (LUO) it’s 428. Southern Luo dialect with 4.2 million speakers in Kenya and Tanzania. Sinistrodextral (left-to-right-reading) Luo Lakeside script...
12
/ Dumaboro
x2022
In
Luo [Lango] (LAJ) it’s 429. Southern Luo dialect with 2.6 million speakers, Uganda. All Lango numerals under 20 begin with A;...
12­
Kʉvɨɨrɨ
x2022
In
Luo [Shilluk-Cøllø] (SHK) it’s 430. Northern Luo dialect spoken by 175,000 Shilluk people in Sudan and South Sudan. T⁠hree tones (low...
12­ x2022
In
Luxembourgish [Traditional] (LTZ) it’s 431. Indo-European, Germanic, significant French influences — its term for "Goodbye" is Äddi — 390,000 speakers. "Moselle...
12­ x2022  



In
Maa [Maasai] (MAS) it’s 432. Nilo-Saharan family (possibly), spoken in Kenya & Tanzania by 1.3 million. Highly tonal and features implosive...
12­
olóíbórrárè
x2022
In
Maa [Samburu] (SAQ) it’s 433. Maa dialect of the northern Kenya highlands, 240,000 speakers. Maasai and Samburu are primarily oral and...
12­
Lapa le isiet
x2022
In
Macedonian {Hellenic} (XMK) it’s 434. Indo-European, Hellenic, unrelated to Slavic Macedonian in the next entry. T⁠his was the language of Alexander...
ΙΒ­
ΓΟΡΠΙΑΙΟΣ [gorpiaios]
x‘ΒΚΒ
In
Macedonian {Slavic}[Archaic/Folk] (MKD) it’s 435. Indo-European, South Slavic, unrelated to Hellenic Macedonian above, 1.4–3.5 million speakers in the Balkans. Lacks the...
12­ x2022  
In
Mada [Rija] (MDA) it’s 436. Niger-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic, spoken by over 100,000 (all dialects) in Nigeria's Plateau and Kaduna States. Tonal...
12­
hwә yә̄ tāndà
x2022
In
Maguindanao [Pre-Spanish Conquest] (MDH) it’s 437. Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 1.1 million descendants of the Sultanate of Maguindanao on Southwest Mindanao in...
12­ x2022  
In
Makalero (MJB) it’s 438. From the Trans-New Guinea family, spoken by 8000 in East Timor’s extreme eastern tip. Makalero speakers...
12­ x2022
In
Makassarese [Traditional, before 1605] (MAK) it’s 439. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, 2.1 million speakers in Indonesia’s South Sulawesi province. T⁠he antimacassar doily that protects chairs...
12
 / bulang Pacciekai
x2022
In
Makhuwa-Meetto (MGH) it’s 440. Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by 6.6 million Makua in Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. Few vowels but a...
12­
Mweri wo nane
x2022
In
Makonde (Kimakonde) (KDE) it’s 441. Niger-Congo, Bantu, Ruvuma, 1.4 million speakers in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania. Kenga sombo sako ni nyundo...
12­
Mwedi wa Nnyano na Mitatu
x2022
In
Malagasy [Standard] (MLG) it’s 442. In all dialects inclusive, spoken by 25 million in Madagascar but — surprise! — it's Malayo-Polynesian...
12­
Aogositra
x2022
In
Malagasy [Antankaraña] (XMV) it’s 443. Dialect spoken by 156,000 ethnic Antankaraña in the north. Malagasy's demonstrative pronouns specify seven distance qualities...
12­ x2022
In
Malagasy [Sakalava] (SKG) it’s 444. Dialect spoken by 1.2 million ethnic Sakalava in northern Madagascar. Malagasy has its own endemic script...
١٢­ x٢٠٢٢
In
Malagasy [Tandroy-Mahafaly] (TDX) it’s 445. Dialect spoken by 1.3 million ethnic Tandroy and Mahafaly in southwestern Madagascar. T⁠hese south­ern dialects diverge...
12­
Aogositse
x2022
In
Malecite-Passamaquoddy (PQM) it’s 446. Algonquian family, Eastern, endangered, spoken by several hundred in New Brunswick and Maine. It has twelve...
12­ x2022
In
Maltese (MLT) it’s 447. Afroasiatic family, descends from an extinct variety of Arabic that developed on Sicily, spoken on Malta...
12­
Awissu
x2022
In
Manchu (MNC) it’s 448. Southern Tungusic, Manchu group. Spoken natively by fewer than 20 people in Northeast China, but also...
12
[žakun biya]
x2022
In
Mandinka (Mandingo) [Traditional] (MNK) it’s 449. Niger-Congo family, Mande branch. Bitonal. Mandinka officially uses the Roman alphabet, but its 17-character Arabic-derived script...
12­
سًكَرِ كُنٌكُ / sankari konongo
x2022
In
Mang (ZNG) it’s 450. Austroasiatic family, 3200 speakers in Lai Châu Province, Vietnam, and neighboring areas in China. T⁠he outside...
12­
meː1 haːm1
x2022
In
Mangarevan (MRV) it’s 451. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 600 in French Polynesia's Mangareva and Gambier Islands. T⁠hough many speakers are bilingual...
12­
akahotu
x2022
In
Mangbai (ZNG) it’s 452. Niger-Congo, Mbum, Tupuri–Mambai, 14,000 speakers in Cameroon (Bénoué) and Chad (Lac-Léré). First studied academically in 1971...
12­ x2022
In
Mankanya (Uhula) (KNF) it’s 453. Niger-Congo family, Bak branch, spoken natively by 75,000 in Guinea-Bissau, T⁠he Gambia, and in and around...
12­
Pli ptëbënţën pi pti
x2022
In
Mansi (MNS) it’s 454. Uralic, related to Hungarian and Khanty (qq.v.), 3000 speakers in central Siberia. Mansi tradition con­siders bears...
12­ x2022  
In
Manx (GLV) it’s 455. Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic, Isle of Man, natively extinct since 1974. Like all Celtic languages, its nouns...
12­ x2022  
In
Maori [New Zealand] (MRI) it’s 456. Malayo-Polynesian, closely related to Tahitian. Personal pronouns come in singular, dual, and plural. Long vowels are...
12­
Here turi kōkā
x2022
In
Maori [Cook Islands] (Rarotongan) (MRI) it’s 457. T⁠his is the Māori dialect official in the Cook Islands with approx. 14,000 speakers there and...
12­
ՙAukute
x2022
In
Maori [Moriori] (MRI) it’s 458. Māori dialect of the Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand's South Island. In 1835, two waves...
12­
Muruwhenū
x2022
In
Mapudungun (Mapuche) (ARN) it’s 459. Language isolate native to Chile (Araucanía) and Argentina, 260,000 speakers. Mapuches as a whole make up...
12­ x2022  
In
Mari [Meadow or Eastern] (Cheremis) (MHR) it’s 460. Uralic language spoken in Russia’s Mari Republic by 470,000. Nine noun cases. T⁠he other chief dialect...
12­ x2022  
In
Marshallese (MAH) it’s 461. Malayo-Polynesian, two chief dialects, spoken by 44,000 on the Marshall Islands. It sports an unusually complex...
12­
Ǫkwōj
x2022
In
Masurian [Premodern] (???) it’s 462. Indo-European, West Slavic, between 5,000 and 15,000 speakers in northeastern Poland and Germany. As Masurian is...
12­ x2022
In
Matlatzinca (MAT) it’s 463. From the Oto-Manguean family, spoken by 650 in and around San Francisco Oxtotilpa, Mexico. Matlatzinca is...
12­
nenkunjonbë
x2022
In
Mavea (MLV) it’s 464. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, spoken by perhaps two dozen on Vanuatu's Mafea Island. It’s moribund, rapidly yielding...
12­ x2022
In
Maxakalí (MBL) it’s 465. Macro-Gê family, spoken by a few hundred in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Maxakalí coins terms by combining...
12­
ãgox
x2022
In
Mazanderani (Tabäri) (MZN) it’s 466. Indo-European, Western Iranic, spoken by 3 million in Iran’s southern Caspian coast provinces. Of its renowned...
۱۲­
آگوست  [ägust]  or  اوت  [aut]
x۲۰۲۲
In
Mbelimè (MBL) it’s 467. Niger-Congo, Gur, Oti-Volta, 40,000 native speakers in the communes of Cobly and Boukoumbé in the department...
12­
dinɔɔ̀deendè
x2022
In
Mbuko (MHW) it’s 468. Afroasiatic, Chadic, with 13,000 speakers in northern Cameroon. Its unusually rich sound inventory includes implosives (see...
12­
kiya désuëo
x2022
In
Mbukushu (MHW) it’s 469. Niger-Congo family, a Bantu language that unlike most uses clicks, spoken by 50,000 Hambukushu along Namibia's...
12­
thiteketa
x2022
In
Mbula (MNA) it’s 470. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 4500 in Morobe, Papua New Guinea. Many bilingual in Tok Pisin (q.v.) and/or...
12­
Aigere
x2022
In
Meänkieli (FIT) it’s 471. Endangered Finnish dialect group spoken by 30,000–70,000 in Sweden's Norrbotten province. Bengt Pohjanen is a noted...
12­
aykysti
x2022
In
Meitei (Manipuri) (MNI) it’s 472. Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in India, Bangladesh, Burma and not to be confused with Bishnupriya Manipuri (q.v.) which...
꯱꯲
/  ꯊꯋꯥꯟ  /  thavaan
x꯲꯰꯲꯲
In
Mele (Atara Imere) (MXE) it’s 473. Malayo-Polynesian, one of two interintelligible languages (the other is Fila) spoken natively by 3500 on Vanuatu's...
12­
Ookes
x2022
In
Menominee (MEZ) it’s 474. Algonquian family, spoken natively by fewer than two dozen in northern Wisconsin but enthus­i­as­tic­ally supported and...
12­ x2022
In
Meriam Mir (Eastern Torres Strait) (ULK) it’s 475. Trans-Fly family, spoken by around 200 on six islands in the treacherous Torres Strait between Australia...
12­
Ogo
x2022
In
Meta' (MGO) it’s 476. T⁠his difficult-to-Google Niger-Congo, Bantu language is spoken by 190,000 in Cameroon. T⁠here is radio programming in...
12­
iməg ichika
x2022
In
Miami-Illinois (Myaamia) (MIA) it’s 477. Algonquian, originally midwestern US. Extinct but under revival, largely through the efforts of con­struc­tion worker-cum-linguist Daryl...
12­ x2022  
In
Michif (CRG) it’s 478. A French-Cree hybrid, fewer than 1000 speakers. North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba. It borrows its Gregorian calendar...
12­
áhou
x2022
In
Micmac (Mi’kmaq ) (MIC) it’s 479. Eastern Algonquian family, approx. 7000 speakers in extreme eastern Canada and northern New England. At one...
12­ x2022  
In
Miju Mishmi (Kaman) (MXJ) it’s 480. Either Sino-Tibetan (?) or an isolate (?), spoken by 18,000 in India's Arunachal Pradesh and Zayü...
12­
Mǖīyà
x2022
In
Min Dong [Fuzhounese] (CDO) it’s 481. Sino-Tibetan, unintelligible with Mandarin or Cantonese, southern China, 9. 5 million speakers. T⁠his is Min Dong’s standard...
 / dâ̤ báik nguŏk
x
In
Mingrelian (XMF) it’s 482. An endangered Kartvelian language akin to Georgian and Laz (qq.v.), with some mutual intel­li­gi­bil­ity with the...
იბ­ xცკბ  
In
Mirandese (MWL) it’s 483. Romance language, over 1000 years removed from Portuguese, spoken by around 5000 in Portugal's municipalities of...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Miskito (MIQ) it’s 484. From the small Misumalpan family, spoken by approx. 150,000 in Honduras and Nicaragua. English loans are...
12­
sikla kâti
x2022
In
Mixe [Isthmus or Coatlán] (MCO) it’s 485. Mixe–Zoquean family, Mixean, Lowland, 45,000 speakers in northeastern Oaxaca, Mexico. T⁠heir language is agglutinative — i.e., words...
12­
äämbë agostë
x2022
In
Mixtec [Magdalena Peñasco] (Tlacotepec Mixtec) (XTM) it’s 486. Oto-Manguean family, Mixtecan branch, Mixtec subgroup. Magdalena Peñasco, “Language of the Rain People,” spoken by 7400...
12­
yoo agosto
x2022
In
Mixtec [Tututepec] (MTU) it’s 487. A Mixtec language spoken by 1200 in Santa María Acatepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, and San Pedro...
12­
yòò sávì
x2022
In
Miyakoan (MVI) it’s 488. Japonic, Southern Ryukyuan, with an estimated 10,000 speakers, mostly over 60, on the Miyako Islands of...
 / jaatsii-gacii
x
In
Mizo (Lushai) (LUS) it’s 489. Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Burma, Bangladesh, and India. Akin to Biete (q.v.). A ṭha lam kawng...
12­ x2022  
In
Moba [Ben] (MFQ) it’s 490. Niger-Congo family, Gur, Oti-Volta, Gurma, spoken by 300,000 in northwestern Togo, con­cen­trated in the city of...
12­
sabɔunŋ
x2022
In
Moba [Bimoba or Moar] (BIM) it’s 491. T⁠his is the rarer Moba dialect spoken by 32,000 in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Not to...
12­
chaakpita
x2022
In
Mocheno (MHN) it’s 492. West Germanic, Bavarian, akin to Cimbrian (q.v.), spoken by 1900 in Italy's Bersntol region and reg­u­lated...
12­
agst
x2022
In
Mochica (Chimú) (OMC) it’s 493. Mochica was native to the Peruvian coast and has been assigned to the hypothetical Chimuan fam­ily...
12­ x2022
In
Mohawk (MOH) it’s 494. Iroquoian family, 3500 speakers in Ontario, Quebec, and northern New York State. Like all Iroquoian languages...
12­ x2022  
In
Mokilese (MKJ) it’s 495. Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Chuukic-Pohnpeic, 500 speakers on Mokil atoll in the Federated States of Micronesia. T⁠his language...
12­
oahkes
x2022
In
Moksha (MDF) it’s 496. A Uralic, Mordvinic language spoken along the central Volga and related to Erzya (q.v.). T⁠here are...
12­ x2022  
In
Mong Njua [Green Miao] (HNJ) it’s 497. Unlike Hmong Daw (q.v.), this dialect lacks the unvoiced m; thus it's spelled “Mong” without the...
12­
lú yi͊.hli
x2022
In
Mongolian (MON) it’s 498. Central Mongolic, 5.2 million speakers. Observes vowel harmony and lacks the standard l sound. Its Ancient...
᠑᠒­
𑨝𑨥𑩇𑨢𑩇𑨛𑨂𑨍𑨀𑨫𑨳 𑨰𑨫𑨳 / наймдугаар сар [najmdugaar sar]
x᠒᠐᠒᠒
In
Monguor (Tu) (MJG) it’s 499. Mongolic family, Shirongolic branch, 150,000 speakers in China's Qinghai and Gansu provinces. Two chief dialects are...
12­
niiman sara
x2022
In
Montagnais Innu (MOE) it’s 500. Algonquian language related to Cree (q.v.), spoken by 11,000 in Labrador and Quebec. Contrastive vowel length...
12­ x2022  
In
Moro (MOR) it’s 501. Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, spoken in Sudan's Nuba Mountains. T⁠hough there were 30,000 speakers in six clans reported...
12­
ubwa gə'Đəɽal 2
x2022
In
Mossi (Mòoré) (MOS) it’s 502. A Niger-Congo language, akin to Frafra (q.v.), spoken natively by 7.8 million in Burkina Faso, Mali...
12­
sa-sika
x2022
In
Moxo [Trinitario] (TRN) it’s 503. Arawakan family, Southern, native to Northeast Bolivia. T⁠he Endangered Languages Project reports 3140 speakers. Jaguars...
12­
awosto
x2022
In
Mozarabic (Andalusi Romance) (MXI) it’s 504. A cluster of non-standardized Romance languages spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula...
XII­
اگوست / אגּושׂת  /  agúst  
xMMXXII
In
Mundang (MUA) it’s 505. A Niger-Congo language spoken by 250,000 in southern Chad. Its writing system adds Ɓ, Ɗ, Ə...
12­
madǝmbii
x2022
In
Mussau-Emira (EMI) it’s 506. Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Saint Matthias, with 5000 speakers based primarily on Papua New Guinea's islands of Mussau...
12­
ghaoaluna ateva ulana
x2022
In
Muyang (MUY) it’s 507. Afroasiatic, Chadic, Central, South, spoken by 30,000 in Cameroon's Far North Province, arrondisse-ment of Tokombéré. Tonal...
12­ x2022
In
Muya (MVM) it’s 508. Sino-Tibetan family, Northern Qiangic; two chief dialects not mutually intelligible. T⁠here are 10,000 speakers, of which...
12­
3355dʑe3553
x2022
In
Mwotlap [Folk/Traditional] (MIV) it’s 509. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, spoken natively by 2100 on Vanuatu’s Mota Lava, Ra, and Banks Islands. Uses...
12­ x2022  
In
Myene (Omyene) (MYE) it’s 510. Niger-Congo, Bantu, with 45,000 speakers of the Mpongwe, Nkomi, Galwa, and Bongo Pygmy groups in Gabon.
12­
fogwɛnana
x2022



In
Nāhuatl (NAH) it’s 511. Uto-Aztecan, from the original language group of the Aztecs, presently 1.7 million speakers. Of its many...
12­
tlachicuēiti
x2022
In
Na [Yongning] (NRU) it’s 512. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, Naish, spoken in Yongning township, Lijiang municipality in China's Yunnan Province. Akin to Nakhi...
12­
honlhimi
x2022
In
Nafsan (South Efate) (ERK) it’s 513. Malayo-Polynesian, native to Efate Island of Northeast Vanuatu with 6000 speakers. T⁠he language counts in base-5...
12­
atlag kalatol
x2022
In
Nakhi (Naxi) (NXQ) it’s 514. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, spoken by 350,000 in a part of Yunan’s Himalayan foot­hills where the...
12­
hualmei
x2022
In
Nanai (Gold) (GLD) it’s 515. Tungusic family, spoken by some 1400 descendants of Manchurian Jurchen in the Amur River basin area...
12­
дёан биа [dyɔan bia]
x2022
In
Nandi (Kalenjin) (KLN) it’s 516. Nilo-Saharan family, Nilotic, Kalenjin group, spoken in east Africa's Rift Valley. Tonal, contrastive vowel length. Not...
12­
kipkogaga
x2022
In
Naandi [Cemual] (NIQ) it’s 517. A Nandi subdivision (spelled with double-A) spoken by 950,000 in Kenya's Rift Valley. Since the Nandi...
12­ x2022
In 12­
ᐊᑲᔅᑦ ᐱᓯᒻ [aakaast-piisim na]
x2022
In
Navajo (Diné bizaad) (NAV) it’s 519. Athabaskan, Southwest US, 170,000 native speakers. Tones, nasals, and ejectives make for a classic Navajo tongue...
12­ x2022  
In
Navava (Avava or Katbol) (TMB) it’s 520. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, 700 speakers in 4 villages on Vanuatu’s Malakula Island. Cash crop is copra...
12­
Reptamal
x2022
In
Nawdm (NMZ) it’s 521. Niger-Congo, Gur, Northern, 150,000 speakers in Togo plus more in Ghana. Nawdm's alphabet includes six digraphs:...
12­
nààg bún ní
x2022
In
Ndebele [Northern] (Zimbabwean Ndebele) (NDE) it’s 522. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantu, Nguni, 2.5 million speakers. Native to Zimbabwe and part of Botswana, spoken by...
12­ x2022  
In
Ndebele [Southern] (Transvaal Ndebele) (NBL) it’s 523. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantu, Nguni, 1.2 million speakers in South Africa's provinces of Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Gauteng, and...
12­
uRhoboyi
x2022
In
Ndyuka (Aukan) (DJK) it’s 524. English-based creole spoken by 25,000 to 30,000 rainforest dwellers known as the Maroon in Surinam and...
12
 / aitin mun
x2022
In
Neapolitan (NAP) it’s 525. Romance language named not after the city but the Kingdom of Naples, spoken in central Italy...
12­
aust
x2022
In
Neapolitan [Tarantine] (NAP) it’s 526. Dialect of Neapolitan with Ancient Messapic roots, spoken by 300,000 in and around the city of...
12­
aguste
x2022
In
Nenets [Tundra] 1 (YRK) it’s 527. Uralic family, Samoyedic, spoken by 22,000 in a swath starting from Russia’s Kola Peninsula, eastward along...
12­
явьxалиь иры [yaw  j xаli  j  yiri]
x2022
In
Nenets [Tundra] 2 (YRK) it’s 528. As standardization among Nenets’s calendar terms is pretty forgiving, here’s a set from a different source...
12­ x2022
In
Nez Perce (NEZ) it’s 529. Plateau Penutian family, Idaho, fewer than 200 speakers, revival underway. Observes vowel harmony, acute accents show...
12­ x2022
In
Nganasan (NIO) it’s 530. Uralic family, Samoyedic, with much vocabulary from a mysterious substrate. Extreme north-central Russia, seriously endangered with...
12­
kicezê
x2022
In
Ngiemboon (NNH) it’s 531. Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid, Grassfields. Spoken in Province de l’Ouest and Bamboutos in Cameroon by 250,000...
12­ x2022
In
Ngomba (JGO) it’s 532. Another Grassfields language like Ngiemboon above. Spoken in Province de l'Ouest and Bamboutos in Cameroon by...
12­
pɛsaŋ pɛ́nɛ́fɔm
x2022
In
Ngwo (Engwo) (NGN) it’s 533. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantoid, 22,000 speakers in the Northwest Region of Cameroon -- Momo Division, Njikwa Subdivision...
12­
Agúshì
x2022
In
Nheengatu (YRL) it’s 534. Tupi-Guaraní family, spoken by 19,000 in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela and named from the phrase nhe'eng...
12­
îasyposapyra
x2022
In
Nisga’a (NCG) it’s 535. Tsimshianic family, seriously endangered, British Columbia, Canada, 2818 speakers reported in 2014. A close kin to...
12­ x2022  
In
Niuean (NIU) it’s 536. Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 2000 in the South Pacific island nation of Niue and another 5700...
12­
Aokuso
x2022
In
Nivkh (Gilyak) (NIV) it’s 537. Language isolate spoken on western Sakhalin Island and adjacent mainland by around 1000. Nivkh is genderless...
12­
lygi vota long
x2022
In
Nkore (Runyankore) (CGG) it’s 538. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Spoken by 2.3 million in southwestern Uganda. So close to Kiga /Rukiga (q.v.) that many...
12­ x2022
In
Nogai (Alabugat Tatar) (NOG) it’s 539. Turkic, spoken by 87,000 in southwestern Russia's Tuva region by Golden Horde descendants. Nogai Khan (died...
12­
сары тамбыз [sary tambyz]
x2022
In
Noni (Noone) (NHU) it’s 540. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantoid, Eastern Beboid, 50,000 speakers in Cameroon. Noni is said to have been heard...
12­
kpwee Ŋbwele
x2022
In
Norman [Continental] (NRF) it’s 541. Romance, Langue d’oïl, Norse loans, 100,000 speakers in Normandy. T⁠he Channel Island languages Guernésiais, Jèrriais, and...
12­
âot
x2022
In
Norman [Guernésiais/Dgèrnésiais] (NRF) it’s 542. Norman dialect spoken by approx. 200 on the Channel Island of Guernsey. Victor Hugo contemporary George...
12­
avout
x2022
In
Norman [Jèrriais] (NRF) it’s 543. Norman dialect spoken natively by 2000 on the Channel Island of Jersey. Actress, socialite, eventual California...
12­
âot
x2022
In
Norman [Sercquiais] (Sarkese) (NRF) it’s 544. T⁠he Norman dialect spoken by about 20 on the Channel Island of Sark, descended from 16th...
12­
u
x2022
In
Nuer (NUS) it’s 545. Nilo-Saharan. South Sudan and Ethiopia, 900,000 speakers. Breathy, shown with underscores, vs. non-breathy vowels. Related to...
12­
T⁠hoor
x2022
In
Nukuoro (NKR) it’s 546. Malayo-Polynesian, approx. 860 speakers on Nukuoro Atoll and Pohnpei Island, Federated States of Micronesia. Five vowels...
12­
valu-malama
x2022
In
Nusu (Nu) [Northern] (Wawa-Kongtong dialect) (NUF) it’s 547. Sino-Tibetan, Lolo-Burmese, preliterate, 2000 speakers in China's Fugong, Wawa, Kongtong, and Youduoluo Counties. Not to be...
12­
ɕe̱53 ɬa55
x2022
In
Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) [Hesquiaht, Muwač’atḥ] (NUK) it’s 548. Of the Southern Wakashan family, Nuuchahnulth as a whole is spoken natively by 130 on Vancouver...
12­
ʕiʕičasumł
x2022
In
Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) [Ahousaht, ʕaaḥusʔatḥ] (NUK) it’s 549. T⁠he Nuuchahnulth dialect of the Ahousaht First Nation on Western Vancouver Island. As are all Wakashan...
12­
ʔiiḥ
x2022
In
Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) [Tseshaht, C’išaaʔatḥ] (NUK) it’s 550. T⁠he Tseshaht First Nation is native to the Broken Group Islands of Barkley Sound, Western Vancouver...
12­
sacupimł
x2022
In
Nyole (Lunyole) [Ugandan] (NUJ) it’s 551. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 340,000 speakers in the Tororo District of Uganda. It shares approx. 60% of...
12­
Neerima
x2022
In
Nzime (Koonzime) (PAC) it’s 552. Niger-Congo, Bantu Zone A, spoken by 40,000 Dweʼe and Nzime people in Cameroon. Two dialects, Koonzime...
12­
twe-kobo
x2022



In
Occitan [Aranese] (OCI) it’s 553. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’òc. Compared to French, Occitan has changed little over the cen­tur­ies. It’s official...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Occitan [Gascon] (OCI) it’s 554. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’òc, Gascony in southern France. Cited by some linguists as a separ­ate language...
12­
aost
x2022
In
Occitan [Provençal] (OCI) it’s 555. T⁠he Occitan, which includes Niçard, spoken in Provence in southern France by 350,000. At one time...
12­
avoust
x2022
In
Occitan [Vivaro-Alpine] (OCI) it’s 556. Seriously endangered Occitan dialect spoken by 200,000, primarily in Dauphiné in southeastern France and the Occitan...
12­
avost
x2022
In
Oirat [Kalmyk] (XAL) it’s 557. Mongolic, spoken by 80,500 in the Republic of Kalmykia, at the northwestern extreme of the Caspian...
12­
ноха сар [noĥa sar]
x2022
In
Ojibwe (Chippewa) [Eastern] (OJG) it’s 558. Algonquian family, akin to Algonquin (q.v.), 100,000 speakers for all dialects inclusive in north-central US and...
12 x2022  
In
Ojibwe (Chippewa) [Western] (OJW) it’s 559. T⁠he other major dialect of Ojibwe. As you might notice, vowels can be long or short...
12 x2022
In
Oneida (ONE) it’s 560. Iroquoian family, approx. 250 native speakers in Ontario, New York State, and Green Bay, Wisconsin. T⁠he...
12­ x2022  
In
Onondaga (ONO) it’s 561. Iroquoian family, approx. 50 speakers in Ontario and New York State. Like Palawano (q.v.) and other...
12­
chereskô ha
x2022
In
Oodham (Papago-Pima) (OOD) it’s 562. From the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken by some 10,000 in South-Central Arizona and northern Sonora. No f...
12­ x2022
In
Oroch (OAC) it’s 563. Northern Tungusic language, eight (as of 2010) native speakers in Khabarovsk Krai in eastern Siberia and...
12­
беэ икки иггаса [bjey ikki iggasa]
x2022
In
Oromo (ORM) it’s 564. Afroasiatic, Cushitic. Central Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. Non-Roman scripts were once banned; Qubee, Oromo's modern Roman...
12­
هَغَييَ / hagayya
x2022
In
Os (Chulym) (CLW) it’s 565. Western Turkic, moribund but still spoken by a few dozen in the Chulym River area north...
12­ x2022  
In
Os (Chulym) [Küärik] (CLW) it’s 566. A Lower Chulym dialect that went extinct before the 20th century. It was spoken along the...
12­ x2022
In
Osage (OSA) it’s 567. T⁠his Oklahoma-based Siouan language went natively extinct in 2005 with the death of its last speaker...
12
/ mį́įǫpa hkíetoopa
x2022
In
Ossetian [Digor] (OSS) it’s 568. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken in a semi-autonomous region divided into North — Alania (in Russia) and South (in Georgia)...
12­ x2022
In
Ossetian [Iron] (OSS) it’s 569. Pronounced ee-ron, this is the more popular Ossetian dialect, with slightly under half a million speakers...
12­ x2022  
In
Otomi [Northwestern, Mezquital] (OTE) it’s 570. Oto-Manguean family, Oto-Pamean group, spoken by 100,000 in the Mezquital Valley of Hidalgo, Mexico, endangered. T⁠hree...
12­
m’axi
x2022



In
Pacoh (PAC) it’s 571. Austroasiatic, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, 32,000 speakers in Laos and Vietnam. Six vowels which can be long...
12­
kixay ticol
x2022
In
Pahlavi (Middle Persian) (PAH) it’s 572. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic. T⁠his is the Zoroastrian/Mithraist-based calendar used in Cappadocia under the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE)...
x  
In
Paicî (PRI) it’s 573. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, 7300 speakers on New Caledonia's east coast and inland valleys. Paicî has 5...
12­
ca api
x2022
In
Palauan [Premodern] (PAU) it’s 574. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, approx. 15,000 speakers. Palau, Guam, Mariana Islands. Palauans divided their year into two: Ongos...
12­ x2022  
In
Palawano [Brooke’s Point] (PLW) it’s 575. Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine. Of three dialects, this one is spoken by 25,000 on Palawan Island...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Palmyrene (???) it’s 576. Afroasiatic, Semitic, Aramaic. Under the legendary Queen Zenobia, the Palmyrene Empire briefly held Rome’s eastern provinces...
x
In
Palor (Sili-Sili) (FAP) it’s 577. Niger-Congo family, Cangin, 11,000 ethnic Seereer speakers in the T⁠hiès area of West Central Senegal. Some...
12­
ut
x2022
In
Pame (Xi’iui) (PBS) it’s 578. From the Oto-Manguean family, tonal, spoken by 11,000 in central Mexico's State of San Luis Potosí...
12­
ngum’au ngumajau nguljung
x2022
In
Pashto [Northern/Eastern] (PUS) it’s 579. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken by the Pashtuns of Northeast Pakistan. Of all Pashto dialects inclu­sive, there are...
۱۲­ x۲۰۲۲  
In
Pashto [Southern/Western] (PUS) it’s 580. Pashto dialect spoken in western Afghanistan and Iran. Unlike other Iranics, Pashto includes retroflex (curled-tongued) consonants:...
۱۲­ x۲۰۲۲  
In
Pawnee [South Band] (PAW) it’s 581. Caddoan family, north-central Oklahoma, natively extinct though with some non-fluent speakers. Along with Arikara, we hear...
12­
Paaraáreehac
x2022
In
Pecheneg (XPC) it’s 582. A mysterious, poorly attested Turkic language with no known descendants, spoken on Crimea and beyond the...
 / şehtem
x
In
Pemon (Arekuna) (AOC) it’s 583. From the Cariban family, spoken by 30,000 in SE Venezuela, Brazil's Roraima State, and Guyana. It...
12­ x2022
In
Penan-Nibong (PEZ) it’s 584. Malayo-Polynesian, North Sarawakan, spoken by 13,000 nomadic Penan in Sarawak, Borneo. Two main dialects. "Nice to...
12­
laseh ayah
x2022
In
Penrhyn (Tongarevan) (PNH) it’s 585. Critically endangered Polynesian language spoken by around 200 in the northern Cook Islands. Penrhyn atoll in...
12­
aukuse
x2022
In
Picard (Ch’ti or Patois) (PCD) it’s 586. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’oïl, extreme northern France. As its 700,000 speakers are mostly elderly, UNESCO declares...
12­
août
x2022
In
Picard [Medieval] (PCD) it’s 587. As inscribed on the 14th century Astrolabe of Berselius. Picard flourished as a literary medium during...
x
In
Piedmontese (PMS) it’s 588. Indo-European, Romance; 700,000 native speakers in northwestern Italy and diaspora communities in Argentina. Curiously, Piedmontese lacks...
12­
òst
x2022
In
Pingelapese (PIF) it’s 589. Malayo-Polynesian, 3000 speakers on Pingelap atoll in T⁠he Federated States of Micronesia. Pingelapese has different sets...
12­
idid
x2022
In
Pipil (Nawat) (PPL) it’s 590. Uto-Aztecan language under revival, El Salvador. T⁠here are now over 3000 speakers. Yek teutak! Ken tinemi?...
12­
metzi chikwey
x2022
In
Piro [Yine] (PIB) it’s 591. Arawakan family, spoken by the 4000 ethnic Yine who live in the Peruvian Urubamba River Valley...
12­
gakosto ksuru
x2022
In
Pitcairn-Norfolk (PIH) it’s 592. An endangered Tahitian /English creole spoken on Pitcairn & Norfolk Islands. T⁠his one got its start in...
12­
orgas
x2022
In
Pnar (Jaintia or Synteng) (PBV) it’s 593. Austroasiatic language, 320,000 speakers, Meghalaya, Northeast India, plus Bangladesh adjacent. Shares much in common with Khasi...
12­
naj sɔphra
x2022
In
Pohnpeian (PON) it’s 594. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, 34,000 speakers on Pohnpei Island in the Caroline Islands. Offers 30 sets of 1-to-9...
12­
ahkos
x2022
In
Poitevin-Saintongeais (???) it’s 595. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’oïl with Langue d’òc elements, spoken in Poitu /Vendée. Earliest known writings date from...
12­
àut
x2022
In
Poitkut (Pokot) (KLN) it’s 596. Nilo-Saharan family, Kalenjin. 264,000 speakers in Kenya’s West Pokot and Baringo counties and in Uganda's Karamoja...
12­
Mïkeyon
x2022
In
Polabian (POX) it’s 597. West Slavic with Germanic influences. Last native speaker, who claimed also to sing well in it...
12­ x2022
In
Pomeranian [Kashubian] (CSB) it’s 598. Indo-European, West Slavic, Lechtic. Some 100,000 speakers living in Germany, Poland, and within a community in...
12­ x2022  
In
Pomeranian [Slovincian] (CSB) it’s 599. T⁠he other major dialect of Pomeranian, extinct since World War I. One source cited its last speaker...
12­
ao̱ɣʉst
x2022
In
Pontic (PNT) it’s 600. Indo-European, Hellenic, 200,000 speakers in northern Greece, Turkey, and diaspora communities. T⁠he Greatest Pontic king was...
12­
Αύγουστον [Avgouston]
x2022
In
Potawatomi (POT) it’s 601. Algonquian language native to the Great Lakes areas of Michigan, Wisconsin, Ontario, and Illinois. One...
12­ x2022
In
Proto-Germanic (???) it’s 602. Reconstructed ancestor (hence the asterisks) of all Germanic languages, last spoken ca. 250 BCE. T⁠he character...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Proto-Slavic (???) it’s 603. Reconstructed ancestor of all Slavic languages, 5th to 8th centuries CE, unattested. Under Byzantine Emperor Michael...
XII­ xMMXXII  
In
Pukapukan (PKP) it’s 604. Malayo-Polynesian language from Danger Island (Cook Islands group). Several hundred speakers, mostly ex-pat groups in Australia...
12­
Aukute
x2022
In
Puluwat (PUW) it’s 605. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, Trukic, several hundred speakers on the coral atoll of Poluwat (for­merly Puluwat), seven feet...
12­ x2022
In
Pumi [Qingua or Southern] (PMJ) it’s 606. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic. Spoken by 22,000 ethnic Pumi in Lanping and Ninglang counties is Yunnan. Pumi uses...
12­
qa55sɑ̃u13ʒi13
x2022
In
Pumi [Taoba or Northern] (PMI) it’s 607. Pumi’s other chief dialect, spoken by 55,000 in Sichuan’s Jiulong, Muli and Yanyuan counties, Yunan’s Ninglang...
12­
ʂuɛ35li55mei35
x2022
In
Purepecha (Tarascan) (TSZ) it’s 608. A language isolate of the descendants of the Purépecha civilization — which rivaled that of the...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Puroik (Sulung) (SUV) it’s 609. So far unclassified. Spoken by 20,000 in roughly seven dialects by the Puroik hill tribes people...
१२­
সান্গ সান্গ্তে আম্ব / सन्गो सन्ग्ते आम्बो / sango sangte aambo
x२०२२



In
Qeqchi’ (Kekchi) (KEK) it’s 610. Mayan family, half a million speakers in Guatemala and Belize. Q’eqchi’ uses ejectives and accents vir­tually...
12­
akoost
x2022
In
Qiang [Horpa/Ergong] (ERO) it’s 611. Sino-Tibetan family, Qiangic, Rgyalrongic, non-tonal, 50,000 Sichuan-area speakers. Linguists call Horpa a “living fossil.” Qiangic languages...
12
 / ɦɛ dʑɛ pa
x2022
In
Qiang [Northern, Central Heishui, Máwō] (CNG) it’s 612. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, non-tonal, 130,000 speakers in Eastern Tibet and China’s north-central Sichuan. Features “R-colored” vowels, i.e....
12
 / kha ʴʂ
x2022
In
Qiang [Southern, Taoping] (QXS) it’s 613. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, but tonal (unlike Ergong and Máwō in previous entries), 80,000 speakers. As if 6...
12­
tʂhe55ʂı33
x2022
In
Qiang [Southern, Western Lixian] (QXS) it’s 614. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, tonal, native to Li County, Sichuan. Four subdialects: Puxi, Xuecheng, Muka, and Jiuzi. Grammatical...
12
 / tʂhaχl
x2022
In
Quechan (Yuma) (YUM) it’s 615. Yuman family, around 300 native speakers in southeastern California and western Arizona. Verbs carry most of...
12­
xaly'á siipxúk
x2022
In
Quechua [Standard] (QUE) it’s 616. Quechuan family, widely spoken by Inca Empire descendants. Natively it lacks the vowels E and O...
12­ x2022  
In
Quechua [Huallaga] (QUE) it’s 617. Quechua as spoken in the Huánuco Province in Peru. Quechua dialects in the main typically feature...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Quechua [Northern/Ecuadorian] (QUE) it’s 618. Quechua dialect, called Kitchwa, spoken in Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru. An Ecuadorian Quechua speaker may greet...
12­ x2022  
In
Quechua [Southern/Bolivian Cochabamba] (QUH) it’s 619. Of Southern Bolivian Quechua as a whole, there are 1.6 million speakers in Bolivia (where it's...
12­ x2022
In
Quechua [Southern/Cusco ] (QUZ) it’s 620. Modern terminology for the Quechua dialect spoken in the Peru's Cusco region. In Cusco, you might...
12­ x2022  
In
Quechua [Southern/Cusco Imperial] (QUZ) it’s 621. T⁠his is the traditional terminology of the Inca Empire, citing its monthly celebrations. Spellings and word...
12­ x2022
In
Quileute (Quillayute) (QUI) it’s 622. Chimkakuan family, extinct but undergoing revival at the Quileute Tribal School in La Push, Washington. Quirk:...
12­
tsaḳ ̕it̕sa
x2022



In
Rade (RAD) it’s 623. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamic, Highlands, akin to Cham (q.v.), spoken by 180,000 E-de people in southern Vietnam...
12­
mlan sa păn
x2022
In
Raga (LML) it’s 624. Malayo-Polynesian, 6500 speakers on Vanuatu’s Pentecost Island, home of those death-defying vine jumpers. Raga uses four...
x
In
Rangi (Langi) (LAG) it’s 625. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, with between 270,000 and 410,000 speakers in central Tanzania. Its nouns divide into...
12­
Kʉvɨɨrɨ
x2022
In
Rapa Nui (Pascuanese) (RAP) it’s 626. Eastern Polynesian, Easter Island, 2700 native speakers. Its endemic writing system, called Rongorongo, remains undeciphered. Month...
12­ x2022
In
Rawang (Krangku) (RAW) it’s 627. Sino-Tibetan family, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish, 63,000 speakers in India and northern Burma. Roman alphabet writing system developed...
12­
shvt shvlá
x2022
In
Reel (Atuot) (ATU) it’s 628. Presumably Nilo-Saharan, related to Nuer (q.v.) and Dinka, spoken by some 50,000 Atuot people living near...
12­
Abɔ̈thnuoon
x2022
In
Rennell-Bellona (Rennellese) (MNV) it’s 629. Malayo-Polynesian, 4000 speakers, Solomon Islands’ Rennell and Bellona provinces. For most people who live there, it's...
12­
Ghoghasi
x2022
In
Rgyalrong [Northwestern, Sidaba] (JYA) it’s 630. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic. Sidaba, spoken in Sichuan's Xiaojin, Danba, and Baoxing Counties, is one of rGyalrong’s five...
12­
zla wa brɟjɐt pe
x2022
In
Rohingya (RHG) it’s 631. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, Bengali-Assamese. Six noun cases. Heavily persecuted, the Rohingya are toughing it out in Burma...
𐴱𐴲
 / hati
x𐴲𐴰𐴲𐴲
In
Romani [Balkan Sofia Erli] (RMN) it’s 632. Romani is a group of Indo-European, Indic languages whose preliterate founders departed from north­ern India sometime...
12­
augosto
x2022
In
Romani [Balkan Ursari] (RMN) it’s 633. A Balkan Romani spoken in Moldavia and Romania. An Ursari morning greeting is Lač ho d’es.
12­
augustos
x2022
In
Romani [Kale Finnish] (RMF) it’s 634. Indic language by way of Scotland, England, and Scandinavia, spoken by 11,700 Finnish Romani. “Good afternoon!”...
12­
džiivesko čoon
x2022
In
Romani [Kale Iberian] (Caló) (RMQ) it’s 635. T⁠his one is spoken by Iberian Peninsula Romani. T⁠he characters singing the famous "Anvil Chorus" in...
12­
querosto
x2022
In
Romani [Kale Welsh] (RMW) it’s 636. Romani variety spoken in Wales until at least 1950, introduced during the 15th century. Its purported...
12­
giveskero
x2022
In
Romani [Vlax] (RMY) it’s 637. Today's most widely spoken Romani, originally the language of the Romani enslaved in the territory of...
12­
oxtotonai
x2022
In
Romanian [Meglenitic] (Megleno-Romanian) (RUQ) it’s 638. Eastern Romance, native to Greece, Macedonia, Romania, and Turkey. Some consider Meglenitic a separate language; others...
12­ x2022  
In
Romanian [Old Church/Traditional] (RON) it’s 639. Indo-European, Romance. Romanian used the Cyrillic alphabet from 1521 until 1859 when Moldavia and Wallachia united...
їв­ x҂вкв
In
Romansh [Grischun] (ROH) it’s 640. Indo-European, Rhaeto-Romance, Switzerland. Romansh comes in five chief dialects. Not included among those is Grischun, a...
12­
avust
x2022
In
Romansh [Putèr] (ROH) it’s 641. Romansh dialect spoken in the Engadine Valley, Switzerland. Often incorrectly referred to as “Ladin,” though not...
12­
avoust
x2022
In
Rombo (Kirombo or Chaga) (ROF) it’s 642. Niger-Congo, Northeast Bantu, spoken in Tanzania's Kilimanaro Region. Four dialects: Keni, Mashati, Mkuu, and Usseri. T⁠he...
12­
Mweri wa nane
x2022
In
Rongga (ROR) it’s 643. Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, spoken in East Nuse Tenggara Province in central Flores, Indonesia. Not to be confused...
12­
wula dero
x2022
In
Rongmei Naga (NBU) it’s 644. Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin Naga (?), Zeme. About 94,000 Rongmei live in Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland in Northeast India...
12­
pukphabw
x2022
In
Rotokas (ROO) it’s 645. North Bougainville family, spoken by approx. 4000 in Papua New Guinea. Famous for its tiny sound...
12­
vo peva vatarapa kekira
x2022
In
Russian [Premodern] (RUS) it’s 646. T⁠his was Russian before it adopted neo-Latin (more accurately, Byzantine Greek) month conventions. For several centuries...
їв­ x҂вкв
In
Russian [Ninilchik] (???) it’s 647. Endangered but still spoken by descendants of 19th century Russian American Company workers in Ninilchik, Alaska...
12­
Agúst
x2022
In
Rusyn (Ruthene or Ruthenian) (RUE) it’s 648. East Slavic, approx. 60,000 current speakers. T⁠hree grammar/spelling standards: Lemko, Panonian, and Prešov. Compared with Russian...
12­ x2022  
In
Rwanda-Rundi [Kinyarwanda] (KIN) it’s 649. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Tonal, official in Rwanda. Of the 20 million speakers for Rwanda-Rundi in total, 9.8...
12­
Ukwa munani
x2022
In
Rwanda-Rundi [Kirundi] (RUN) it’s 650. T⁠he other chief dialect of Rwanda-Rundi, spoken in Burundi by 8.8 million. Most speakers refer to...
12­
ukwēzi kwa munani
x2022



In
Sa‘a (South Malaita or Apae‘aa) (APB) it’s 651. Malayo-Polynesian, SE Solomonic, spoken by 12,000 in South Malaita, Solomon Islands.
12­ x2022
In
Sabaean (Sabaic or Himyarite) (XSA) it’s 652. Afroasiatic, Old South Arabian, putative language of the Queen of Sheba/Saba, Yemen between ca. 1000 BCE...
𐩽𐩽𐩲­
𐩹𐩢𐩧𐩰𐩬 [ḏḫrfn]
x𐩽𐩽𐩲𐩲𐩱𐩱
In
Saho (SSY) it’s 653. Afroasiatic, Cushitic, Lowland East, 220,000 native speakers in Eritrea and in Tigray in Ethiopia, des­cen­dants from...
12­
نَخَاسِ / naxaasi
x2022
In
Sakizaya (SZY) it’s 654. Austronesian, Formosan, Ami, an indigenous language spoken by around 900 on Taiwan (Keelung, Taoyuan City, New...
12­
walu bulad
x2022
In
Salish, Coastal [Island Halkomelem] (HUR) it’s 655. A language from the Salishan family spoken by approx. 200 on the east coast of Vancouver...
12­ x2022
In
Salish, Coastal [Klallam] (CLM) it’s 656. Salishan family, once heard in the Pacific Northwest on the northern shore of the Olympic Peninsula...
12­
čən̕hənən
x2022
In
Salish, Coastal [Puget Sound] (Lushootseed) (LUT) it’s 657. Another Salishan language, spoken by several dozen of the Nisqually tribe. T⁠he word “geoduck” (elephant clam)...
12­
pədt̓aqaʔ
x2022
In
Salish, Coastal [Sechelt] (Shashishalhem) (SEC) it’s 658. T⁠his Salishan family language is native to the Sechelt Peninsula area of British Columbia. Fewer than...
12­
temt՚ aḵa shalshal
x2022
In
Salish, Coastal [Squamish] (SQU) it’s 659. Salishan, native to Squamish, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver in British Columbia. One remain­ing native speaker...
12­
tem t՚áḵa7
x2022
In
Salish, Interior [Kalispel–Spokane–Flathead] (FLA/SPO) it’s 660. Also called Montana Salish, spoken by approx. 100 elders in central Montana's Flathead Nation and the...
12­
st̕šá spq̓niʔ
x2022
In
Salish, Interior [Shuswap] (SHS) it’s 661. T⁠he northernmost Interior Salishan language, spoken natively by around 200 in central and southern British Columbia...
12­ x2022
In
Sami [Northern] (SME) it’s 662. Finno-Ugric, 20,000 speakers. T⁠he term “Lapp” for the Sámi language group is considered derogatory and no...
12­ x2022  
In
Sami [Inari] (SMN) it’s 663. Spoken by 300-400 around Lake Inari in northern Finland. To say good-bye to someone leaving in...
12­
porgemáánu
x2022
In
Sami [Kildin] (SJD) it’s 664. T⁠he Sámi spoken by around 600 in the Lovozero area of the Kola Peninsula and the...
12­
поаррькманну [pоаrr’kmannu]
x2022
In
Sami [Lule] (SMJ) it’s 665. Spoken by between 1000 and 2000 around the Lule River in Sweden and in Norway's Nordland...
12­
bårggemánno
x2022
In
Sami [Skolt] (SMS) it’s 666. Seriously endangered, 400 speakers mostly around Sevettijärvi, Finland. Oldest writings date from 1884. T⁠hough millennia removed...
12­
på’rğğmään
x2022
In
Sami [Southern] (SMA) it’s 667. Seriously endangered, 500–600 speakers in Norway’s Snåsa and Hattfjelldal districts. While also refer­enc­ing reindeer husbandry, Southern...
12­ x2022
In
Samlandish (Old Baltic Prussian) (PRG) it’s 668. Indo-European, Baltic (as opposed to Germanic, the other, entirely unrelated “Prussian”), extinct by 1800. While its...
12­
daggis
x2022
In
Samoan [Traditional] (SMO) it’s 669. Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, about 500,000 speakers in the Samoan Islands and ex-pat communities elsewhere. Vocabulary and pronunciation...
12­
Vaenoa
x2022
In
Samogitian (SGS) it’s 670. Indo-European, Baltic, spoken in western Lithuania. A Lithuanian dialect to some, a separate language to others...
12­ x2022  
In
Sango (SAG) it’s 671. Ubangian-derived creole, three tones, central Africa, 450,000 native speakers. Along with French, Sango is an official...
12­
ngbungbu
x2022
In
Sangu {Tanzania} (SBP) it’s 672. Niger-Congo family, Northeast Bantu, Bena-Kinga, 75,000 speakers in Tanzania's Mbeya Region. Not to be confused with...
12­
Mupuguto
x2022
In
Sanskrit (SAN) it’s 673. Classical Indo-European, Indic language spoken natively between approx. 1500 BCE and 1350 CE. Its living relatives...
𑁧𑁨­
𑀅𑀱𑁆𑀝𑀫𑀫𑀸𑀲 / अष्टममास / aṣṭamamāsa
x𑁨𑁦𑁨𑁨
In
Santali (SAT) it’s 674. Austroasiatic, Munda, spoken by 7.6 million in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Uses Ol Chiki alphabet...
᱑᱒
[agasṭa]
x᱒᱐᱒᱒
In
Saramaccan (SRM) it’s 675. Portuguese/English/Dutch creole with African elements, Suriname. 90,000 speakers, most of whom descend from escaped slaves.
12­ x2022
In
Sardinian [Campidanese] (SRD or SRO) it’s 676. Indo-European, Italic, Romance; 500,000 speakers in Sardinia in the Cagliari metro area and elsewhere in Oristano...
12­
austu
x2022
In
Sardinian [Gallurese] (SDN) it’s 677. Sardinia's Gallura region and elsewhere in the Northeast, 100,000 speakers. It has more noticeable Spanish and...
12­
austu
x2022
In
Sardinian [Logudorese ] (SRD or SRC) it’s 678. Half a million speakers in the central-southern Sardinian province of Sassari, northern parts of the...
12­
austu
x2022
In
Sardinian [Logudorese Nuorese] (SRD or SRC) it’s 679. Subdialect with features found nowhere else on Sardinia including some th (IPA symbol θ) sounds and...
12­
agustu
x2022
In
Sardinian [Sassarese] (SDC) it’s 680. 100,000 speakers tending toward the north of the island. Its origins go back to the 16th...
12­
aosthu
x2022
In
Satawalese (STW) it’s 681. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, Trukic, spoken by 500 on Satawal, Yap, and other islands and atolls of the...
12­ x2022  
In
Saxwe (Tsáphɛ) (SXW) it’s 682. Niger-Congo family, Gbe group, tonal, spoken by 170,000 in Benin. Most speakers understand some Fon (q.v.)...
12­
Otɔsun
x2022
In
Secoya (Pai Coca) (SEY) it’s 683. Tucanoan family, spoken by 1200 in Peru and Ecuador along the Putumayo and Vaupés Rivers. Nouns...
12­
kakou
x2022
In
Sedang (SED) it’s 684. Austroasiatic language native to Vietnam’s Central Highlands and adjacent areas of Laos with 100,000 speakers. Famously...
12­
khế tơhéam
x2022
In
Seediq [Truku/Taroko] (TRV) it’s 685. Austronesian, Formosan, Atayalic. Indigenous language from northern Taiwan with 20,000 speakers. In 1930 the Seediq people...
12­
maspat idas
x2022
In
Sekani [Fraser Lake] (SEK) it’s 686. Athabaskan language spoken by a few dozen in British Columbia. Bitonal, contrastive nasalized vowels. T⁠he name...
12­ x2022
In
Sekani [McLeod Lake and Tsek’ene] (SEK) it’s 687. Two other Sekani dialects. Left term is McLeod Lake; right, Tsek’ene. In Tsek’ene, when greeting a...
12­
Sas tsutle inza / Yhììh nunutsunde wìlę
x2022
In
Selkup (SEL) it’s 688. Uralic, Samoyedic. Siberia’s Yamalo-Nenets region, 1500 speakers. T⁠he language has a uvular trill (IPA ʀ), which...
12­ x2022  
In
Serbian [Orthodox] (SRP) it’s 689. Serbian Orthodox Church tradition. Its non-Russian Cyrillic character Ђ / ђ represents the j sound in jar...
12­ x2022
In
Serbian [Premodern/Folk] (SRP) it’s 690. Serbian folk tradition, pre-19th century. Many Turkish loanwords — 8000 or so — from the Ottoman...
12­
гумник [gumnik]
x2022
In
Seri (SEI) it’s 691. Indigenous language isolate spoken by 720 in coastal Sonora, Mexico. Nine definite articles dependent on proximity...
12­ x2022
In
Seychellois Creole (Seselwa) (CRS) it’s 692. French-based creole of Seychelles with Malagasy, Bantu, English, and Hindi loans, 70,000 speakers, its standardization maintained...
12­
out
x2022
In
Shan (SHN) it’s 693. Kra-Dai language, tonal. Spoken in Burma, T⁠hailand, and China. Virtually all are bilingual with Burmese (q.v.)...
႑႒­
လိူၼ််ၵဝ် [lunkaw]
x႒႐႒႒
In
Shawiya Berber (Tachawit) (SHY) it’s 694. Afroasiatic, Berber, spoken by the Chaouis of eastern Algeria’s Aurès Mountains. As ancient Numidia, this was...
ⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠­
ghecht [ɣešθ] / ⵖⴻⵛⵜ
xⴵⴵⵔⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠
In
Shawnee (SJW) it’s 695. An Algonquian language with fewer than 200 speakers in Oklahoma, originally native to Tennessee's Cumberland River...
12­ x2022  
In
Sheko (SHE) it’s 696. Afroasiatic, Omotic, Dizoid, spoken natively between the towns of Tepi and Mizan Teferi in western Ethiopia...
12­
kūbm̄ ʔyatsʼn
x2022
In
Sherpa (XSR) it’s 697. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tibetic. Spoken by 150,000 in Nepal, Tibet, and Kashmir. Tonal. In 1953, Sherpa Tenzing...
१२­
दावा ग्येपा / dāwā gyepā
x२०२२
In
Shinasha (Borna or Boro) (BWO) it’s 698. Afroasiatic, either North or South Omotic (depending on whose paper you take to heart) dialect cluster...
12­
mihidufi
x2022
In
Shixing (SXG) it’s 699. A scantily documented Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic language of the Sichuan and Tibet Autonomous Regions. Spoken by fewer...
12­
ɕyi55ɬɯ55
x2022
In
Shona (SNA) it’s 700. Bantu language spoken by over 8 million, official in Zimbabwe but also heard in Botswana, Mozambique...
12­ x2022  
In
Shor [Mrassu] (CJS) it’s 701. Turkic. Both Shor dialects together claim 2800 speakers in Siberia’s Kemerovo Oblast, a mountainous, wooded expanse...
12­ x2022
In
Shoshoni (Shoshone) [Eastern] (SHH) it’s 702. Uto-Aztecan family. In all dialects inclusive, natively spoken by 1000 in Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming...
12­ x2022
In
Shuar (JIV) it’s 703. Aénts Chicham family, 35,000 jungle-dwelling speakers in Ecuador's Morona-Santiago and Pastaza Provinces. Not to be confused...
12­ x2022  
In
Sicilian (SCN) it’s 704. Indo-European, Romance, combining heavy Arabic and Greek influence with pre-Indo-European roots. Other traits include its relative...
12­
aùstu
x2022
In
Sikaiana (SKY) it’s 705. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 750 on the small, isolated atoll of Sikaiana in the Solomon Islands. Different...
12­
Okosi
x2022
In
Silesian (SZL) it’s 706. West Slavic, spoken by half a million in Poland and the Czech Republic. Some authorities consider...
12­ x2022
In
Sinhala (Sinhalese) [Premodern] (SIN) it’s 707. Indo-European, Indic, 17 million speakers, Sri Lanka. Uses unusual, prenasalized consonants — a kind of m...
෧෨­
නිකිණි [nikini]
x෨෦෨෨
In
Siona (Bai Coca) (SNN) it’s 708. Tucanoan family, spoken by 500 Siona people in Colombia and Ecuador along the Putumayo River. Franciscan...
12­
kakou
x2022
In
Slavey [North] (SCS) it’s 709. Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Slavey as a whole has around 1800 speakers among the Slavey and Sahtu people...
12­
Díorídih Sah
x2022
In
Slavey [South] (XSL) it’s 710. T⁠his Slavey dialect is heard principally in the MacKenzie region. It lists 1000 speakers. While a...
12­
Ek’a zá
x2022
In
Slavonic [Old Church] (CHU) it’s 711. Indo-European, Slavic. Its earliest written form dates from Saint Cyril’s Glagolitic alphabet (left). Its successor...
їв­ x҂вкв  
In
Slavonic [New Church] (CHU) it’s 712. Current liturgical language used in conservative Slavic European Orthodox churches and the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese...
12­
а҆ѵгꙋ́стъ [avgust]
x2022
In
Slovenian [Standard Premodern] (SLV) it’s 713. Indo-European, South Slavic, standardized from the Carniolan and other dialects during the 18th century. Not to...
12­ x2022  
In
Slovenian [Prekmurian Premodern] (SLV) it’s 714. Prekmurian is spoken in Northeast Slovenia and western Hungary. It's sufficiently divergent from Slovenian that many...
12­ x2022
In
Slovenian [Resian] (SLV) it’s 715. From the Resia Valley in Italy's Udine Province and showing heavy Italic influences. Most of its...
12­
avošt
x2022
In
Somali (SOM) it’s 716. Afroasiatic, Cushitic. Employs vowel harmony and three tones, spoken in the horn of Africa and in...
𐒡𐒢­
bisha sideedaad / 𐒁𐒘𐒉𐒖 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒜𐒆𐒛𐒆 / بِشَ سِدٕيدَاد
x𐒢𐒠𐒢𐒢
In
Soninke (SNK) it’s 717. Niger-Congo family, Western Mande, official in Mali, Senegal, T⁠he Gambia, and Mauritania and also spoken in...
12­
عُتُنخَسُ / utunxaso
x2022
In
Sora (SRB) it’s 718. Austroasiatic family, Munda, 410,000 speakers in Andhra Pradesh and the Ganjam and Gajapati districts of Orissa...
𑃱𑃲­ x𑃲𑃰𑃲𑃲
In
Sorbian (Lusatian or Wend) [Lower Premodern] (WEN) it’s 719. Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 10,000 in lower Saxony (Brandenburg). Six noun cases. Mina Witkojc (1893–1975)...
12­ x2022
In
Sorbian (Lusatian or Wend) [Upper Premodern] (WEN) it’s 720. Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 40,000 in upper Saxony. Seven noun cases -- one more than...
12­
žnjenc
x2022
In
Sotho (Sesotho) (SOT) it’s 721. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantu, spoken in Lesotho (where it's the official language) and South Africa. It's tonal...
12­ x2022
In
Sotho [Northern] (Sepedi) (SOT) it’s 722. Another dialect of Sotho spoken in South Africa, though actually more closely related to three other...
12­
Phato
x2022
In
Southern Min [Taiwanese Hokkien] (NAN) it’s 723. Sino-Tibetan, spoken by 13.5 million on coastal Taiwan. Unintelligible even with some other Min branch languages...
x  
In
Standard Moroccan Berber (Tamazight) (ZGH) it’s 724. Afroasiatic, Berber, standardized in 2011 through amendments to the Moroccan Constitution. ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵉⵔⵉⵖ ⴰⴷ ⵍⵎⴷⵖ...
ⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠­
ⵖⵓⵛⵜ [ɣuct]
xⴵⴵⵔⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠
In
Sudovian (Yotvingian) (XSV) it’s 725. Indo-European, Baltic, unfortunately extinct by 1600. It was mutually intelligible with Samlandish (q.v.). A major trove...
12­
rugp’ūtis
x2022
In
Sumi (Sema) (NSM) it’s 726. Sino-Tibetan, Angami–Pochuri. Spoken by 350,000 Sümi Naga in Northeast India near the Burmese border. Unusually rich...
12­
Saghi qhi
x2022
In
Sumo (Mayangna) [Northern, Tawakha] (YAN) it’s 727. Misumalpan family, 9000 speakers in Nicaragua and Honduras. T⁠his dialect is spoken at the mouth of...
12­
kurih bikis waiku
x2022
In
Sumo (Mayangna) [Southern, Ulwa] (ULW) it’s 728. Another Sumo dialect with about 400 speakers in eastern Nicaragua. Rather than pry into a recipient’s...
12­
ubalamh waikaku
x2022
In
Svan (Svanuri) (SVA) it’s 729. Kartvelian family — like Georgian, Mingrelian, and Laz (qq.v.) but the most divergent and furthest removed...
იბ­
ლიმრიე̄თეჟ [limriēt’ež]
xცკბ
In
Swazi (siSwati) (SSW) it’s 730. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Swaziland (official), Lesotho, Mozambique, and South Africa. T⁠hree tones, none expressed in writing. Upon...
12­
íNgci
x2022
In
Swedish [Traditional/Folk] (SWE) it’s 731. North Germanic, descended from Old Norse. T⁠his is its premodern terminology. Swedish, but not uniquely: Inhaling...
12­ x2022
In
Syriac Aramaic (SYC) it’s 732. Afroasiatic, Northwest Semitic, used liturgically by Syrian Christians in Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia. T⁠hough they...
ܝܒ­ xܟܩܟܒ  



In
Tabasaran (TAB) it’s 733. Northeast Caucasian language spoken in two chief dialects by 126,900 in southern Dagestan as of 2010...
12­ x2022  
In
Tacana (TNA) it’s 734. Western Tacanan family, 559 native speakers out of 18,500 ethnic Tacanas living in the Beni...
12­
badhi sukuka beta
x2022
In
Tachelhit (Shilha or Sussian) (SHI) it’s 735. Afroasiatic, Berber, southern Morocco (or central Morocco, if you recognize its shaky claim on Western Sahara)...
ⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠­
ⵖⵓⵛⵜ [ɣušt]
xⴵⴵⵔⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠
In
Tagalog [Pre-colonial] (TGL) it’s 736. Malayo-Polynesian, Central Philippine, spoken by approx. 70 million (28 million fluently). T⁠his is the endemic terminology...
12­
pangalan nang buan ikaualong sa lakad nang taon
x2022
In
Taita (Daw'ida) (DAV) it’s 737. Niger-Congo family, Bantu. 400,000 speakers in Kenya’s Taita Hills. Taita has three chief dialects, Daw’ida, Kasigau...
12­
Mori ghwa wunyanya
x2022
In
Taki Taki (Sranan Tongo) (SRN) it’s 738. An English/Dutch/Portuguese/West African creole spoken by half a million in Suriname. Likely the world’s smallest vocabulary...
12­
Aitimun
x2022
In
Talinga (Lubwisi) (TLJ) it’s 739. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 99,000 speakers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (where they call it...
12­
Kwamunaana
x2022
In
Tamahaq (THV) it’s 740. Afroasiatic, Berber, Northern Tuareg language spoken in Algeria, western Libya, and northern Niger. T⁠hree dialects, 77,000...
12­
yusset
x2022
In
Tamambo (Malo) (MLA) it’s 741. Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Oceanic, West Santo, 4000 speakers on Vanuatu's Malo Island and Espiritu Santo. Plural pronouns...
12­ x2022
In
Tamil (TAM) it’s 742. Dravidian family, India. Diverged from Malayalam in the 9th century CE. Pronouns offer several levels of...
௧௨­
̣آكسڍ / ஆகஸ்ட் [āghəsḍh]
x௨௦௨௨
In
Tanacross (TCB) it’s 743. Athabaskan language with approx. 30 speakers, Middle Tanana River, Alaska. Earliest written records of it date...
12­ x2022  
In
Tangsa [Hakhun][Premodern] (NST) it’s 744. Sino-Tibetan, Brahmaputran, Konyak. Its Hakhun dialect, shown here, is spoken by 10,000 in India's Arunachal Pradesh...
/ beram da
x
In
Tangut (TXG) it’s 745. Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, of northwestern China but long extinct. Tangut’s 6800-odd character script dates from 1036. In...
x
In
Tasawaq (Ingelshi) (TWQ) it’s 746. Tentatively assigned to Nilo-Saharan, Songhay, though heavily influenced by Hausa and Berber languages. Spoken in the...
12­
ut
x2022
In
Tatar [Central or Kazan] (TAT) it’s 747. Turkic, spoken in Tatarstan. Tatar is on the decline, being supplanted by Russian despite Tatarstan’s constitution...
12­
august / ئائوگئوست
x2022
In
Telugu (TEL) it’s 748. Dravidian, Andhra Pradesh, the fourth most heavily spoken language in India. Like all Brahmic scripts, Telugu's...
౧౨­
ఆగస్టు [āgəʂtu]
x౨౦౨౨
In
Tem (Kotokoli) (KDH) it’s 749. Niger-Congo family, Gur, Gurunsi, 340,000 speakers in Togo, Ghana, and Benin, tonal. T⁠he ɖ is retro­flex;...
12­
ɖiilá
x2022
In
Temne (TEM) it’s 750. Niger-Congo, Bantu language spoken in Sierra Leone, four tones. Uses a modified Roman alphabet with the...
12­
Páya
x2022
In
Teso (Ateso) (TEO) it’s 751. Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Kenya, Uganda by 1.6 million. Not strictly tonal but shows con­trast­ive syllable...
12­ x2022
In
Tetum (Tetun) (TET) it’s 752. Malayo-Polynesian language with Portuguese influences, East Timor, 500,000 speakers. As of 2002, it and Portuguese are...
12­
agostu
x2022
In
T⁠hadou-Kuki (TCZ) it’s 753. An endangered Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin language spoken by 230,000 in Manipur and Assam in Northeast India and...
12­
lhajing
x2022
In
T⁠hai (THA) it’s 754. Kra-Dai family. T⁠hrough Buddhism, T⁠hai absorbed much Indo-European Sanskrit and Pali. T⁠he  ◌marks a...
๑๒
 / สิงหาคม [sǐnghǎakhom]
x๒๐๒๒
In
Tibetan (BOD) it’s 755. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman. Agglutinative, bitonal, three speech registers: informal, polite/respectful, and religious/scriptural. Lhasa Tibetan also possesses mirativity...
༡༢­
ཟླ་བ་བརྒྱད་པ་ / [zla ba brgjad pa]
x༢༠༢༢
In
Tigrinya (TIR) it’s 756. Afroasiatic, South Semitic. Ethiopia & Eritrea, 9 million speakers, related to Blin (q.v.). Like English but...
፲፪­
ነሓሰ [nehase]
x፳፳፪
In
Timbisha [Panamint] (PAR) it’s 757. Uto-Aztecan family, native to California's Owens and Death Valleys and parts of Nevada, 20 speakers at...
12­
woosüwim müattsi
x2022
In
Tiriyó (Trio) (TRI) it’s 758. Cariban family, Taranoan, spoken by 2100 in Brazil's Pará State and in Suriname's Sipaliwini District. Its...
12­
ahkëtëpo
x2022
In
Tiwa [Southern] {New Mexico} (TIX) it’s 759. From the Tanoan family, spoken by 1600 at Isleta Pueblo and Sandia Pueblo, New Mexico and...
12­
Augustu
x2022
In
Tlingit (TLI) it’s 760. Na-Dené family, USA Pacific Northwest, nearly extinct. Tlingit women traditionally wore lip plates. Since the language...
12­ x2022  
In
Tobian (TOX) it’s 761. Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, Trukic, critically endangered, native to Palau's states of Hatohobei, Koror, and Sonsorol, 150 native...
12­
hawaruwari maham
x2022
In
Tocharian B (TXB) it’s 762. Tocharian was a branch of Indo-European, extinct since the ninth century, spoken in China’s Tarim Basin...
 / meñe oktante
x
In
Tofalar (Tofa or Karagas) (KIM) it’s 763. Turkic, mildly tonal, closely related to Tuvan (q.v.), moribund with approx. 90 speakers in Russia’s Irkutsk...
12­ x2022  
In
Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin) (TPI) it’s 764. English-based creole with 120,000 fluent speakers and another 4 million with L 2 proficiency, the lingua franca...
12­
numba et mun
x2022
In
Tokelauan [Traditional] (TKL) it’s 765. Malayo-Polynesian, approx. 4300 speakers in American Samoa (on Tokelau and Swains Island) and New Zealand. Tokelauan...
12­
Vainoa
x2022
In
Tolowa (Siletz Dee-ni) (TOL) it’s 766. Na-Dené, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, natively extinct. Linguist Loren Bommelyn teaches Tolowa in Crescent City, CA. It...
12­
Naa-xan-du’ num-nii-man’s
x2022
In
Tonga (Nyasa) [Traditional] (TOG) it’s 767. Niger-Congo, Bantu, Botatwe (according to some) language spoken by 170,000 in T⁠he Republic of Malawi. Tonal...
12­ x2022
In
Tongan [Premodern] (TON) it’s 768. Malayo-Polynesian, Kingdom of Tonga, 187,000 speakers. Only one vowel per syllable, no clustered consonants. Tongan’s counting...
12­ x2022  
In
Trique [Copala] (TRC) it’s 769. Oto-Manguean family, Mixtecan branch, spoken in San Juan Copala, Oaxaca, Mexico and by migrants in San...
12­ x2022
In
Trique [Chicahuaxtla] (TRC) it’s 770. Trique dialect of 6000 in San Andrés Chicahuaxtla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Chicahuaxtla may be one of the...
12­
óstóo
x2022
In
Tsafiki (Tsachila or Colorado) (COF) it’s 771. Barbacoan family, spoken by 2300 ethnic Tsachilas in Ecuador. Possesses mirativity and evidentiality — grammatical indicators...
12­
sino liri pe
x2022
In
Tsez (Dido) (DDO) it’s 772. Northeast Caucasian, endangered, 15,000 speakers in southern Dagestan. Rich consonant inventory, but like others of its...
12­
август [awgust]
x2022
In
Tshangla (Sharchop) (TSJ) it’s 773. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, spoken by 170,000 in Bhutan’s Trashigang district, Tibet, and Arunachal Pradesh in India. Rarely...
༡༢­
དཝ ཇེཔ / dawa dʑepa
x༢༠༢༢
In
Tsimshian [Coast] (TSI) it’s 774. Indigenous Tsimshianic family language spoken by around 240 in British Columbia and Alaska. Unusually wide consonant...
12­ x2022
In
Tsonga (TSO) it’s 775. Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 7 million speakers in southern Africa. Uses whistling sounds and a single click...
12­ x2022  
In
Tswana (Setswana) (TSN) it’s 776. Niger-Congo family, Bantu; official in Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa. Like Gourmantché (q.v.), Tswana nouns divide into...
12­ x2022
In
Tuareg [Tamasheq] (TAQ) it’s 777. Afroasiatic, Berber, traditionally of the Kel Adrar people, a dialect/subset of Tuareg spoken by half a...
ⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠­
ⵖⵓⵛⴻⵜ [ghušet]
xⴵⴵⵔⵔ⁠ⵏ⁠⁠ⵏ⁠
In
Tujia [Southern] (TJS) it’s 778. Sino-Tibetan, but unclassified within that family due to its extensive borrowing from neighboring languages. Tonal, spoken...
12­
pa21 jye21
x2022
In
Tulu (TCY) it’s 779. Dravidian, of Tulu Nadu, Southwest India. A second century Greek play, Mimítis filanthropías, features characters possibly...
 / sona
x
In
Tumbuka (TUM) it’s 780. Niger-Congo, Bantu. Speakers in Malawi, Zambia, & Tanzania. Between 1.5 and 2 million speakers. Tumbuka was...
12­
Ogasiti
x2022
In
Tunica (TUN) it’s 781. Isolate of central Louisiana, natively extinct since the 1948 death of Mr. Sesostrie Youchigant, but now...
12­ x2022  
In
Turkish [Standard] (TUR) it’s 782. From the Altaic family. Earliest inscriptions, eighth century CE, found in Mongolia. Turkish’s trade­mark undotted I...
12­
ağustos
x2022
In
Turkish [Meskhetian] (TUR) it’s 783. Dialect spoken by the Turkish Meskheti diaspora throughout Russia. Before Stalin's forced expulsions, the Meskhetian homeland...
12­
харман [harman]
x2022
In
Turkish [Ottoman] (TUR) it’s 784. Turkish of the Ottoman Empire before 20th century reforms. Ottoman Turkish borrowed over 80% of its...
۱۲­
اغستوس / ağustos
x۲۰۲۲
In
Turkmen 1 [Pre-Niyazov] (TUK) it’s 784 a. Altaic family, Turkic, Oghuz. Nine million speakers, largely intelligible with Azeri and Turkish. But unlike Turkish...
12­
awgust
x2022
In
Turkmen 2 [Post-Niyazov] (TUK) it’s 784 b. As decreed by President-For-Life Saparmurat Niyazov (1940 –2006)
12­ x2022  
In
Turkmen 3 [Post-Post-Niyazov] (TUK) it’s 784 c. Since 2008, back by popular demand!
12­
awgust
x2022
In
Tuscarora (TUS) it’s 785. T⁠hat last native speaker of this Northern Iroquoian language, Kenneth Patterson, died in 2020. Nominally its...
12­
rahθeʔkyeháh
x2022
In
Tutchone [Northern] (TTM) it’s 786. Na-Dené family, North Athabaskan, about 350 native speakers of Tutchone as a whole. T⁠his northern subgroup:...
12­ x2022
In
Tutchone [Southern, Aishihik] (TCE) it’s 787. Southern or Aishihik Tutchone is spoken in the Yukon communities of Aishihik, Burwash Landing, Champagne, Haines...
12­ x2022  
In
Tuvan (TYV) it’s 788. A Turkic language with Mongolian loans spoken by 280,000 in the Russian Republic of Tuva in...
­
𐰾𐰅𐰾 𐰀𐰖 / сес ай [ses ay]
x
In
Tuvan [Todzhu] (TUN) it’s 789. Northeastern dialect of Tuvan spoken near the upper course of the Great Yenisey River of Krasnoyarsk...
12­ x2022
In
Tzotzil (TZO) it’s 790. Mayan family, Cholan-Tzeltalan branch, spoken by 400,000 in Chiapas, Mexico. T⁠he verb opens the sentence...
12­
‘agosto
x2022



In
Uab Meto (AOZ) it’s 791. Malayo-Polynesian family, unusual gender distinctions, spoken by 800,000 Atoni people in Indonesian West Timor. Not counting...
12­
fun-fanu’
x2022
In
Udi [Traditional] (UDI) it’s 792. Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic, 8000 speakers in Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. Russian, Azerbaijani and Armenian...
12­ x2022  
In
Udi [Old] (Gargarian or Caucasian Albanian) (XAG) it’s 793. Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic, genetically unrelated to Albanian. Dating from the 6th to the 8th cen­tur­ies, it...
𐔹𐔱­ x𐕌𐔺𐔱
In
Udmurt (Votyak) (UDM) it’s 794. Uralic family, related to Komi (q.v.), 500,000 speakers in the central Urals. Natively lacks an f...
12­ x2022  
In
Ukrainian (UKR) it’s 795. Indo-European, East Slavic, Polish affinities. Unlike Russian, Г is pronounced as an h; hard g...
12­ x2022  
In
Ukrainian [Premodern] (UKR) it’s 796. Older Ukrainian. T⁠he character  / represents the u sound, rendered in modern Cyrillic as...
12­ x2022
In
Unami (UNM) it’s 797. Algonquian language of the New Jersey/Delaware area Lenape people, whose last native speaker, Edward T⁠hompson of...
12­ x2022
In
Upper Chinook [Clackamas] (WAC) it’s 798. From the Chinookan family of Northwest Oregon. Upper Chinook went extinct with the death of its...
12­
wa’p u lli
x2022
In
Upper Kuskokwim (KUU) it’s 799. Athabaskan, only 40 speakers (Alaska). Features an unvoiced n sound. Revival efforts currently underway through T⁠he...
12­ x2022
In
Urhobo (URH) it’s 800. Niger-Congo, Edoid, spoken by half a million living near the Niger River or in boats on...
12­
oriaren
x2022
In
Uyghur (UIG) it’s 801. Turkic, loans from Persian, Russian, Chinese. Spoken in China’s Xinjiang region by 8-10 million. Not to...
۱۲­
سهككىزىنچى ئاي / sekkizinchi ay
x۲۰۲۲



In
Vai (VAI) it’s 802. Niger-Congo family, Mande. Tonal, 75,000 speakers, Liberia. Its syllabary writing system was devised by Momolu Duwalu...
꘡꘢­
ꗛꔕ / kɔnde
x꘢꘠꘢꘢
In
Venda (VEN) it’s 803. Niger-Congo family, Bantu branch. Spoken by 1.3 million speakers and understood by another 1.7 million in...
12­
Ṱhangule
x2022
In
Venetian (VEC) it’s 804. Spoken in and around Venice, also in Brazil's Rio Grande do Sul and the Mexican city...
12­
agosto
x2022
In
Veps (VEP) it’s 805. Finno-Ugric, approx. 6300 speakers mostly near the Gulf of Finland. It has 23 noun cases, the...
12­ x2022  
In
Vietnamese (Annamese) (VIE) it’s 806. Austroasiatic family, at one time written with Chinese-derived script called Chữ nôm as shown...
12
tháng tám
x2022
In
Voro (VRO) it’s 807. Uralic, Finnic, related to Veps on the previous page, 80,000 speakers in southern Estonia. Unlike Estonian...
12­ x2022  
In
Votic (Votian or Vote) (VOT) it’s 808. Also Finnic, fewer than 20 speakers in two villages near Narva, Estonia. Like other Finnic languages...
12­
augusti
x2022



In
Wa [Parauk] (PRK) it’s 809. Austroasiatic, Mon-Khmer, spoken by 820,000 hilltop-dwelling ethnic Wa in T⁠hailand, Burma, southern China. Wa's scripts have...
12­
kʰiʔ sədaiʔ
x2022
In
Waali {Ghana} (WLX) it’s 810. Niger-Congo family, Gur, Moré–Dagbani, 140,000 speakers centered around the city of Wa and nearby villages in...
12­
‘chiuri a’nii daana
x2022
In
Waama (Yoabu) (WWA) it’s 811. Niger-Congo, Gur, Oti-Volta, spoken by 50,000 in Benin. Closely related to Mbèlimè and Moba (qq.v.). Most...
12­
ciridaafa
x2022
In
Wallisian (East Uvean) (WLS) it’s 812. Polynesian, spoken by around 10,000 on Wallis Island of Wallis and Futuna. Akin to Rennell-Bellona and...
12­
’aukusito
x2022
In
Walloon (WLN) it’s 813. Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’oïl, native to Belgium's Wallonia region. Despite its traditional label as a French...
12­
di awousse
x2022
In
Waorani (Sabela or Auishiri) (AUC) it’s 814. Language isolate spoken by 2000 mostly Huaorani natives in Ecuador's Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza Provinces plus...
12­
conetede
x2022
In
Warao (WBA) it’s 815. T⁠his is an endangered language isolate spoken by 32,000 on Trinidad and along the northeast coast...
12­
waniku mojo matana dijanamo
x2022
In
Waray-Waray [Premodern] (WAR) it’s 816. Malayo-Polynesian, Central Visayan, 2.6 million speakers, Philippines. Baybayin script shown. Waray-Waray uses a sound, called the...
­
ᜑᜓᜅᜓᜇ᜔ᜑᜓᜅᜓᜇ᜔ / hungodhungod
x
In
Wayuu (Goajiro) (GUC) it’s 817. Arawakan family, Northern, spoken by 305,000 in Northwest Venezuela and Northeast Colombia. Vowels can be short...
12­
akoosto
x2022
In
Welsh (Cymric) (CYM) it’s 818. Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Over 700,000 speakers in Wales, England, Argentina, Canada, and the US. DD is...
12­
Awst
x2022
In
Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) (WIN) it’s 819. Siouan family, related to Chiwere (q.v.), native to an area stretching from Lake Michigan's southwestern shore...
12­ x2022
In
Wintu (WNW) it’s 820. Wintuan family, Northern. Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties, California; extinct though under revival by both tribal...
12­ x2022
In
Woleaian (WLE) it’s 821. Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 1700 in the Federated States of Micronesia. While their language uses foreign loans...
12­
gewaaluweli merame
x2022
In
Wolof (WOL) it’s 822. Niger-Congo language. Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania. T⁠he terms "okay" and "hep cat" may possibly have come from...
12­
bărăxlou / بٚرٚخْلٗو
x2022
In
Wutun (Ngandehua) (WUH) it’s 823. A preliterate Chinese/Tibetan/Mongolic creole with 2000 speakers in the villages of Upper Wutun and Lower...
12­
ba-yai
x2022
In
Wymysorys (Wilamowicean or Vilamovian) (WYM) it’s 824. West Germanic, on the brink of extinction but now under active revival in Poland...
12­
augu̇st
x2022



In
Xhosa [Traditional] (XHO) it’s 825. Niger-Congo, Southern Bantu. Bitonal, with many unusual consonants including 18 clicks. T⁠hese features get a serious...
12­ x2022  
In
Xincan [Jutiapa] (XIN) it’s 826. Actually a family of natively extinct isolates, still spoken by a handful in Guatemala as an...
12­
hɨrte ʔawa
x2022



In
Yakut (Sakha) (SAH) it’s 827. Northern Turkic, grammatically genderless, spoken by 450,000 in the Yakutia Republic in northern Siberia. Its capital...
12­
атырдьах ыйа [atɯrdaχ ɯya]
x2022
In
Yanesha’ (Amuesha) (AME) it’s 828. Arawakan family. Spoken by approx. 7000 Yanesha’ in the Peruvian Amazon. Vowels are A, E, and...
12­
coraquëm̃
x2022
In
Yangben (Central Yambasa) (YAV) it’s 829. Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid, spoken by 17,000 in Cameroon. Yambasa children typically learn French as their...
12­
pisuyú
x2022
In
Yapese [Marbaq/Yap] (YAP) it’s 830. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, 6000 speakers for all dialects inclusive on the Yap islands in the Federated...
12­
Maakaan
x2022
In
Yaqui (Hiaki) (YAQ) it’s 831. Uto-Aztecan family, 17,500 speakers in Sonora, Mexico; another 430 in Arizona. Seven noun cases. Special feature:...
12­
wojnaimet
x2022
In
Yi (Nuosu) (III) it’s 832. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, spoken by 2 million ethnic Yi in China and Southeast Asia. Yi’s script is...
12­
ꉆꆪ / hxit ma
x2022
In
Yi (Nuosu) (III) it’s 833. Alternate terminology. Yi mythology had its people fending off with torches the pests sent by an...
12­ x2022
In
Yiddish (Judaeo-German) (YID) it’s 834. Old High German substrate with Hebrew, Aramaic, and Slavic loans, around 3 million speakers world­wide. It...
12­
אויגוסט [oygust]
x2022
In
Yiddish (Judaeo-German) [13th Century] (YID) it’s 835. T⁠his is Yiddish from 1246–1247, one of the earliest known written records of Judaeo-German in existence...
יב­
אװישט [öust]
xב׳כב
In
Yimkhiungrü [Langa] (YIM) it’s 836. Sino-Tibetan, Central Naga, 83,000 speakers of all dialects inclusive in India’s Nagaland and adjacent. Accord­ing to...
12­
müzhi
x2022
In
Yoruba (YOR) it’s 837. Niger-Congo family, spoken in Nigeria and Benin, tonal, language of the Oyo Empire (ca. 1300–1896). Left...
12­ x2022  
In
Yugur, Western {China} (YBE) it’s 838. Turkic, Yenissei Turkic branch, 4600 speakers in China's Sunan Yugur Autonomous County. Not to be confused...
12­
saqïsïnçï ay
x2022
In
Yukaghir [Tundra] (YKG) it’s 839. Of a moribund two-language family, spoken by several dozen in the Russian Far East, this is...
12­ x2022  
In
Yupik [Central Siberian] (ESS) it’s 840. Eskimo-Aleut family, Bering Strait area, about 1200 speakers — most of them on the US side...
­ x  
In
Yup’ik [Mid-Alaskan] (ESU) it’s 841. Of the Eskimo-Aleut family, the major Yup’ik dialect, 20,000 speakers, the second most heavily spoken indigenous...
­
Amirairun
x
In
Yup’ik [Chevak Cup’ik] (ESU) it’s 842. A Yupi’k sub-dialect of Hooper Bay, Alaska. Only a few speakers, critically threatened. Genderless.
­ x



In
Zapotec, Isthmus (Juchitán Zapotec) (ZAI) it’s 843. Oto-Manguean, Central Zapotec, 85,000 speakers in Tehuantepec and Juchitán in Mexico's State of Oaxaca. Rich inventory...
12­ x2022
In
Zapotec, Western Tlacolula Valley [Teotitlán del Valle] (ZAB) it’s 844. Documented in 2014 by linguist Brook Danielle Lillehaugen. Of Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec's six dialects, Teotitlán...
12­
agost
x2022
In
Zarma (Dyerma) [Premodern] (DJE) it’s 845. Nilo-Saharan family, Songhay group, spoken by 3. 6 million in Southwest Niger. Adds Ɲ (N with left...
12­ x2022  
In
Zaza (Zazaki or Dimli) [Premodern] (ZZA) it’s 846. Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, 2-4 million speakers, mostly in Turkey. First written in 1850 using a Perso-Arabic script...
۱۲­ x۲۰۲۲  
In
Zhuang (ZHA) it’s 847. Kra-Dai family, six tones, spoken in China’s Guangxi region. It has 16 chief dialects of widely...
12­
nin betq
x2022
In
Zou (Zo or Zomi) (ZOM) it’s 848. Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin, spoken by 82,000 in India’s Mizoram and Manipur (Zou) plus north­western Burma where it...
12
 / sêugàwl hà
x2022
In
Zulu (ZUL) it’s 849. Bantu, widely spoken in southern Africa, controlled by the Pan South African Language Board. Its...
12­ x2022  
In
Zuni (Zunian) (ZUN) it’s 850. Language isolate spoken and vigorously supported by a reported 9620 Native American inhabitants of Zuni Pueblo...
12­ x2022

Top right: Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, mid-15th century French Gothic illuminations produced in the Low Countries. Months are captioned in two common vernaculars of that time and place, Medieval Picard and Old Dutch. Left and below those, displayed in random order: Mosaic of Alexander the Great from the House of the Faun, Pompeii; rarely seen Suryani script for Harari, formalized and shown with modern Arabic script; Queen Zenobia's Last Look upon Palmyra by Herbert Gustave Schmalz (1889); sketchbook page of medieval Picard artist Villard de Honnecourt (ca. 1230).


Special thanks

Aaniih Nakoda College

academia.edu

Adams, Douglas Q. (Tocharian B)

Adiego, Ignacio J. (Carian)

Aga, Cavid (Udi)

Allen, Lorraine and Ritter, John
(Tutchone varieties)

Ansuharijaz (Frankish and Proto-Germanic reconstructions)

Arka, I Wayan (Rongga)

Atlasova, E.S. (Yukaghir)

Aune, Doreen Sue (Chukchansi)

Barbour, Julie (Neverver)

Barlow, Russell (Ulwa)

Bergelson, Mira; Kibrik, Andrej A.; Leman, Wayne; and Raskladkina, Marina
(Ninilchik Russian)

Biblioteca Nacional del Perú (Asháninka)

Biesik, Florian (Wymysorys)

Bija, Leah “Fifi” (Fuliiru)

Black, Barbara Webster and Friends of Tobi (Tobian)

Blench, Roger (many African languages)

Boborenvanua, Chief Viraleo (Avoiuli script)

Bodosa, Shyamal (Dimasa)

Borna School Dictionary

Boro, Krishna (Hakhun Tangsa)

Bosma, Jelle (Kanada and Sinhala typefaces)

Bouchery, Pascal (Apatani)

Bright, William and Gehr, Susan (Karuk)

Bugenhagen, Salme; Bugenhagen, Robert (Mbula)

Burkova, S.I.; Koshkareva, N.B.; Laptander, R.I.; and Yangasova, N.M. (Nenets)

Can, Dai Quang (Cham)

Carlin (Eithne), Dr. E.B. (Arawakan languages)

Cavid Ağa (Udi)

Cedelio: La casa de las lenguas

Cesarguanolema.files.wordpress.com

Chibirov, Chibirov (Ossetian)

Chin-dictionary.com (Lai Hakha Chin)

Chinookjargon.com

Chirkova, Ekaterina (Shixing)

Coeur d’Alene Tribal School

Coghill, Prof. Eleanor (Semitic languages)

Comrie, Bernard and Maisak, Timur (Bagvalal)

Crow Language Consortium

Crowley, Terry (Austronesian)

Cvc.cervantes.es

Dafrik, Rois (Fula)

Daudey, Henriëtte and Pincuo, Gerong
(Pumi riddles)

Davis, Nancy Yaw, Ph.D. (Zuni)

Desmotsetdeslangues.eklablog.com

Dicofranpro.llm.umontreal.ca

Donner, William W., (Sikaiana)

Dr. Goodword; Mr. Twister; and Daybreakwarrior (foreign tongue-twisters)

Du Bois, Cora (Wintu)

Dunbar, John (Pawnee)

Durmaz, Orkan (Shor)

Elegantlexicon.com

Endangeredlanguages.com

Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

Fahrenwaldt, Carl Albert
(Unifraktur Maguntia typeface)

Faure, Andrieu (Vivaro-Alpine Occitan)

Firstvoices.com

Fox, Charles E. (Arosi)

French Institute of Oriental Archeology in Cairo (Coptic font)

French National Library (13th century Yiddish)

Fresno State University

Friendsoftobi.org

Gallagher, Steve (Bariai)

Galo Welfare Society

Garth, Thomas R. (Atsugewi)

Gasanova, Marina and Salminat;
Magomedova, Patimat

Gippert, Jost (Old Udi)

Github.com (localizations)

Google Noto (Every free foreign font
you can imagine)

Gray, William (Kwamera)

Green, Reynaldo Dolores Palacio (Miskito)

Guampedia.com (Chamorro)

Guérin, Valérie (Mavea)

Hal.archives-ouvertes.fr

HellenicLanguageBoy (Cappadocian)

Hesquiaht First Nation

Hoskins, Janet (Kodi)

Huber, Juliette (Makalero)

Illa-a.org (Network Solutions)

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Instituto Culturale Mòcheno

Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (Chayahuita)

Iris Iris (Tagalog)

Ivens, Walter George, (Sa‘a and Ulawa)

Jaimoukha, Amjad (Northwest Caucasian)

Jones, Eliza; Kari, James; Buck, Mildred;
Alaska Native Language Center

Krauss, Michael E., (Eyak)

Journal of the American Oriental Society (Sogdian)

Kante, Solomana (N'Ko script)

Karen [language] Teacher Working Group

Kawnation.com/WebKanza

Kosmynka, Borys (Rashi Hebrew)

Kratochvíl, František and Delpada, Benediktus (Abui)

Kri, Sokhep

Lavrillier, Alexandra and Gabyshev, Semen (Evenki)

Le Projet Babel (Vosgien Lorrain)

Lewis, Orrin (Cherokee)

Lewis, Paul (Akha)

Lex.francois.free.fr

Li, Yong-Sŏng (Shor)

Lin, Ying-Chin (Tibetan, Pumi,
and other Qiangic languages)

Lindstrom, Lamont and People of Samaria Village, Vanuatu (Kwamera)

Lionbridge Technologies Translations

Ma, Seng Mai (Wa)

Magomedova, P.T., (Bagvalal)

Marlett, Stephen A. (Seri)

McCracken, Chelsea Leigh, (Belep)

McWhorter, John H. and Good, Jeff (Saramaccan)

Meankielensanakirja.com

Merrifield, Judith and Merrifield, Scott (Loxrlavu)

Michaud, Alexis (Qiangic languages)

Ministerio de educación, Ecuador (Chimané)

Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

Mitchell, Ben (Myanmar typeface)

Mossang, Lakhum (Tangsa alphabet)

Mulerasfireplace.com (east African)

Native-languages.org

Ndoko, Mola Mbua (Bakweri)

Ninilchikrussian.com

Nupepa-hawaii.com

Ojibwe.net

Olsen, Neil Hayes (Kơho)

Ombewa, Kefa (Luo Lakeside Script)

Omniglot.com

Oodhamstuff.com

Openaccess.leidenuniv.nl

Openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au

Orkay, Ongaye Oda, (Konso)

Ossetians.com

Overall, Simon E. (Jivaroan)

Pandey, Anshuman (Old Sogdian script)

Patsou’s Des Mots et des Langues

Patterson, Rev. George D.D. (Beothuk)

Pdfs.semanticscholar.org

Peace Corps language handbooks

Penrhyn.cookislandsdictionary.com

Perry, David J. (Cardo typeface)

Peterson, John (Kharia)

Pomorska, Marzanna (Turkic languages)

Postma, Gertjan (Brazilian Pomeranian)

Powell, Jay (Nuuchahnulth)

Pueblo of Zuni

Qinglian Zhao (Naxi)

Rahamasha.net (Sogdian)

Ramamurti, Rao Sahib G.V. (Sora)

Rapanui.gob.cl (Pascuanese)

Rb.rowbory.co.uk (Nigerian languages)

Rebelion.org (Chamí Emberá)

Repozytorium.amu.edu.pl

Robinson, Laura C. (Dupaningan Agta)

Romani.uni-graz.at

Rongmeiencyclopedia.wordpress.com

Rubattu, Antoninu (Sardinian dialects)

Runner, Jennifer (various greetings)

Sahtudec.ca (Sahtu region languages)

San Buenaventura, Fr. Pedro de (Tagalog)

Sárközi, Alice and Ráko, Atilla (Altaica Budapestinensia MMII Proceedings)

Sarlamthe.blogspot.com

Schlichter, Alice (Wintu)

Scholarsbank.uoregon.edu

Scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu

Schrock, Terrill B. (Ik)

Scientistscrossroads.blogspot.com

SEAlang Library (southeast Asian languages)

Servicio de Información Mesoamericano

SIL.org

Simon Fraser University (B.C.)

Simon, I.M. (Aka)

Sino-platonic.org

Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus

Smelcer, Dr. John (Native Alaskan languages)

Smith, Tony (Muyang)

Soja, Rai (Puroik)

Sorokina, I.P. and Bolina, D.S. (Enets)

Souvenir calendar publishers (many)

Stanonik, Marija (Resian)

Steckley, John L. (Native American languages)

Stkhofifah.wordpress (Kingdom of Goa)

Swarthmore Talking Dictionary (Kharia,
Hruso, etc.)

Taiuru, Karaitiana (Maori)

Tang, Apay (Truku dialect of Seediq)

Tarumian, Ruben (Arian AMU Serif
Armenian font)

Teachers Pay Teachers (Gamilaraay)

Teil, Erster, Slovinzisches Wörterbuch 1908

Thomas, Neil L. (Gaulish)

Tomedes — Smart Human Translation

Tregear, Edward (Mangarevan)

Tsumada.ru (Languages of Dagestan)

Tusaalanga.ca (Inuktitut languages)

UC Berkeley Linguistics Dept.

University of Alaska Fairbanks

University of Helsinki Digital Repository

University of Northern British Columbia

Uriarte, Joseba Santxo (Basque)

Van der Wal Anonby, Christina (Kumzari)

Veder, William and Kempgen, Sebastian (Bukyvede Glagolitic and Old Cyrillic)

Vlaski-zejanski.com (Istro-Romanian-Croatian)

Weryackwe, Suzanne (Havasupai-Hualapai)

Wichmann, Søren; Müller, André;
and Velupillai, Viveka

Wiegel, Peter (Gaelige typeface)

Williams, David (Sora Sompeng typeface)

Williams, Lee R, Ph.D.

Your Friend In Reykjavik



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